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Ruska, Ernst August Friedrich
Ernst August Friedrich Ruska, the scientist who created the electron microscope, was born on December 25, 1906 in Berlin, Germany.
The prototype of the first electron microscope consisted of two consecutive magnetic lenses and it was demonstrated by Ruska on March 9, 1931. At four hundred times magnification this device was much less powerful than modern optical microscopes but it showed the fundamental possibility of using a solenoid as a lens for an electron beam which made it possible to obtain an enlarged image of the objects under study.
In 1933 Ruska built another version of the electron microscope, its resolution made it possible to determine details as large as 500 angstroms and this exceeded the capabilities of optical microscopes.
In 1937, as an electrical engineer at Siemens, he took part in the development of the world's first commercial mass electron microscope. This instrument with 100 angstroms resolution entered the market in 1939.