D.E.V.I.C.E. is an encyclopedia of terms used by manufacturers of test and measurement equipment. T&M Atlantic created this service to better explain the functionality of instruments it offers, and to highlight the latest developments in the world of measurement equipment. We are using such tools as animation to bring words and pictures to life and to create not just an understanding but also an appreciation for technology that goes into the design of every instrument.
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When you change horizontal sweep on a digital oscilloscope you can see the waveform changing of the same signal on different horizontal sweeps.
It’s important to take into consideration the fact that you work with a digital oscilloscope and it digitizes a signal with different sampling rate depending on the horizontal sweep chosen, and afterwards it connects the digitized points with a smooth line (interpolates them), restores the real signal waveform.
The ampere (symbol: A) is the SI unit of electric current (symbol: I) and is one of the seven SI base units. It is named after André-Marie Ampère (1775–1836), French mathematician and physicist, considered the father of electrodynamics. In practice, its name is often shortened to amp.
In physics, the angular velocity is defined as the rate of change of angular displacement and is a vector quantity (more precisely, a pseudovector) which specifies the angular speed (rotational speed) of an object and the axis about which the object is rotating.
Since it was founded in 1918, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) has coordinated the development of voluntary consensus standards in the United States and has represented the needs and views of U.S. stakeholders in standardization forums around the globe. ANSI is the U.S. member body to ISO and, via its U.S. National Committee, the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). ANSI is also a member of the International Accreditation Forum (IAF).
An Instrument-PC-Human hierarchy application software that takes the top level of software and is used to complete user tasks.
The software directly cooperates with a human but for equipment access a system driver should be used.
Application examples: text editor, picture viewers, measurement map programs and PC control programs.
As a rule arbitrary waveform generator is a sort of function generator capable of generating arbitrary waveforms. The majority of modern arbitrary waveform generators use direct digital synthesis (DDS) to generate an output signal, i.e. they are digital.
Communication between the remote device and AKTAKOM remote control software is based on the AULNet technology. TCP/IP socket subset, familiar to UNIX and Windows users, forms network communication endpoints.
Measurement unit that is adopted by convention for a base quantity. For example: The International System of Units (SI) defines seven units of measure as a basic set from which all other SI units are derived.
The Best in Test awards are presented annually by the editors of Test & Measurement World. These awards honor important and innovative new products and services in the electronics test and measurement industry.
In an ordinary case device software (built-in or external) saves data the way they are represented inside of the program. File represents just binary data array of indefinite format. Usually such files get a name with “.bin” extension.
The set of operations that establish, under specified conditions, the relationship between values of quantities indicated by a measuring instrument or measuring system, or values represented by a material measure or a reference material, and the corresponding values realized by standards.
The candela (symbol: cd) is the SI base unit of luminous intensity; that is, power emitted by a light source in a particular direction, weighted by the luminosity function (a standardized model of the sensitivity of the human eye to different wavelengths, also known as the luminous efficiency function).
An electric device used to store charge in circuits. If you decide to unplug high-voltage equipment with a screwdriver, you might find a large capacitor that is still charged up which is very dangerous!
A Swedish astronomer, talented mathematician, a professor of astronomy at Uppsala University, the first to perform and publish careful experiments aiming at the definition of an international temperature scale on scientific grounds.
French physicist. He was best known for developing Coulomb's law, the definition of the electrostatic force of attraction and repulsion. The SI unit of electric charge, the coulomb, was named after him.
Combination of bin files efficiency and text files universality can be achieved with the help of container files. These files keep arbitrary binary data in the predetermined format allowing you to use standard functions and utilities for further operation with them.
An operation to check electric circuit or its part continuity, and also the ways to detect fault locations, circuit disconnection, unreliable contacts or a low resistance part, as well as, any failed parts.
In DC mode a power supply will produce current in accordance with the specified value regardless of the preset input voltage. If at some point the maximum current of the power supply under test exceeds the set current (the load resistance of the power supply will drop) the voltage of the power supply under test will drop. Typically, for a mode indication there should be LED used with "CC" marking.
Pair markers used for measurement by two data points (in an oscilloscope or logic analyzer). Vertical cursors are two movable vertical lines used for the measurement of temporary oscillogram parameters (e.g. signal T period). Horizontal cursors are two horizontal movable lines used to measure the signal level parameters.
DDS is a rather new frequency synthesis method which appeared in early 70s, last century. All the methods described have been available to the developers for decades but only recently such a close attention has been paid to DDS. Nowadays the appearance of cheap micro circuits with DDS and convenient development tools make them attractive for various application fields.
Measurement unit for a derived quantity.
Examples: the metre per second (m/s) and the centimeter per second (cm/s) are derived units of speed in the SI. The kilometre per hour (km/h) is a unit of speed outside the SI but accepted for use with the SI. The knot, equal to one nautical mile per hour, is a unit of speed outside the SI.
Lower level software. It is built into the operating system and provides the access for the applications to the hardware resources of the instrument supported. This software type doesn’t cooperate directly with a user.
Device driver examples: keyboard driver, USB flash drive driver, USB-oscilloscope driver.
An edge trigger occurs when the input signal crosses the specified voltage level in the chosen direction.
Depending on the functionality of oscilloscope capabilities the trigger can occur on rising, falling or rising & falling edge.
Effective number of bits is the feature which reflects the signal quality (or its quality reduction) of analog-digital system in some frequency range. ENOB is defined by IEEE1057 specifications. Besides that IEEE1057 specifications describe the ENOB measurement methods. ENOB is generally acknowledged quality index of ADC, Oscilloscopes and some other discretization systems.
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when close to other electrically charged matter. There are two types of electric charges, called positive and negative.
External synchronization signal is a synchronizing pulse which is external relatively to the measuring device (oscilloscope, generator, logic analyzer etc.) and it usually synchronizes with the system under test.
A Dutch-German-Polish physicist, engineer, and glass blower who is best known for inventing the alcohol thermometer (1709) and the mercury thermometer (1714), and for developing a temperature scale now named after him.
FFF is one of the auto measurement types of a digital oscilloscope located in the time domain (“Delay” menu item), which is used for the measurement of the time delay between the first falling edge of channel 1 and the first falling edge of channel 2.
FFR - is one of the auto measurement types of a digital oscilloscope located in the time domain (“Delay” menu item) which is used for the measurement of the time delay between the first falling edge of channel 1 and the first rising edge of channel 2.
Fast Fourier transform (FFT) is a digital oscilloscope mathematical function which converts a time-domain signal into its frequency components mathematically namely performing signal spectral analysis.
Firewall is a hardware and programming tool set which controls and filters network packages passing through it in accordance with the specified rules. Its function is the protection of computer networks and separate knots from unauthorized access.
In physics, a force is any influence that causes an object to undergo a certain change, either concerning its movement, direction, or geometrical construction. It is measured with the SI unit of newtons and represented by the symbol F.
FRF - is one of the auto measurement types of a digital oscilloscope located in the time domain (“Delay” menu item) which is used for the measurement of the time delay between the first rising edge of channel 1 and the first falling edge of channel 2.
FRR - is one of the auto measurement types of a digital oscilloscope located in the time domain (“Delay” menu item) which is used for the measurement of the time delay between the first rising edge of channel 1 and the first rising edge of channel 2.
Galvanic isolation of signal circuits means absence of DC coupling between them, “circuit ground” and other supply buses. Upon availability of galvanic isolation the potential of signal circuits against “circuit ground” can be significant but it can’t exceed the isolation voltage acceptable for the current interface.
Noise whose probability distribution or probability density function is gaussian. Noise that is steady or stationary in character and originates from the sum of a large number of small events, tends to be gaussian by the central limit theorem of probability theory.
A special case of pulse width trigger is glitch trigger. In general glitch is a short pulse disturbance of uncontrolled parameters.
Glitch synchronization is pulse trigger of the width which is less than the sampling period.
In electrical engineering, ground (grounding) or earth can refer to the reference point in an electrical circuit from which other voltages are measured, or a common return path for electric current, or a direct physical connection to the Earth.
The Hall effect is the production of a voltage difference (the Hall voltage) across an electrical conductor, transverse to an electric current in the conductor and a magnetic field perpendicular to the current.
A Hall probe contains an indium compound semiconductor crystal such as indium antimonide, mounted on an aluminum backing plate, and encapsulated in the probe head. The plane of the crystal is perpendicular to the probe handle. Connecting leads from the crystal are brought down through the handle to the circuit box.
An American scientist who while building electromagnets discovered the electromagnetic phenomenon of self-inductance, discovered mutual inductance, also he is an inventor of the electric doorbell (1831) and relay (1835).
A German physicist who clarified and expanded James Clerk Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light, which was first demonstrated by David Edward Hughes using non-rigorous trial and error procedures. Hertz is distinguished from Maxwell and Hughes because he was the first to conclusively prove the existence of electromagnetic waves by engineering instruments to transmit and receive radio pulses using experimental procedures that ruled out all other known wireless phenomena. The scientific unit of frequency — cycles per second — was named the "hertz" in his honor.
IEEE-488 General purpose interface bus and appropriate protocol are widely used in hardware-software systems for the connection of PC and work station with measurement instruments (e.g. in data acquisition systems).
In electromagnetism and electronics, inductance is that property of a conductor by which a change in current in the conductor "induces" (creates) a voltage (electromotive force) in both the conductor itself (self-inductance) and any nearby conductors (mutual inductance).
As a rule, before software use, it should first be installed into the operating system which means copying necessary files to the PC, registering necessary services, creating shortcuts and a menu for user access to the applications. This task is completed by a special utility-installer. It is usually launched by an executable file named Setup.exe. Then, by means of dialog with the user, it creates the whole software installation procedure, beginning from the packed type supplied by the seller, up to finish when the application can be used on the computer.
The IAF is the world association of Conformity Assessment Accreditation Bodies and other bodies interested in conformity assessment in the fields of management systems, products, services, personnel and other similar programmes of conformity assessment.
World’s leading organization for the preparation and publication of International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies. These are known collectively as “electrotechnology”.
ILAC is the international organisation for accreditation bodies operating in accordance with ISO/IEC 17011 and involved in the accreditation of conformity assessment bodies including calibration laboratories (using ISO/IEC 17025), testing laboratories (using ISO/IEC 17025), medical testing laboratories (using ISO 15189) and inspection bodies (using ISO/IEC 17020).
ISO is an independent, non-governmental international organization with a membership of 162 national standards bodies.
Through its members, it brings together experts to share knowledge and develop voluntary, consensus-based, market relevant International Standards that support innovation and provide solutions to global challenges.
An English physicist, born in Salford, Lancashire. Joule studied the nature of heat, and discovered its relationship to mechanical work. This led to the theory of conservation of energy, which led to the development of the first law of thermodynamics. The SI derived unit of energy, the joule, is named after him.
Jack St. Clair Kilby (November 8, 1923 – June 20, 2005) was an American electrical engineer who took part in the realization of the first integrated circuit while working at Texas Instruments (TI) in 1958.
He is also the inventor of the handheld calculator and the thermal printer, for which he has patents. He also has patents for seven other inventions.
LAN is Local Area Network of a group of computers and/or any other devices placed at a relatively short distance and connected by specialized cables in order to exchange data and use common resources, such as printers, Internet access etc.
LFF is one of auto measurement types of a digital oscilloscope in the time domain (“Delay” menu item) which is used for the measurement of the time delay between the first falling edge of channel 1 and the last falling edge of channel 2.
LFR is one of auto measurement types of a digital oscilloscope in the time domain (“Delay” menu item) which is used for the measurement of the time delay between the first falling edge of channel 1 and the last rising edge of channel 2.
Logic analyzer is a multichannel device for acquisition, saving and displaying of data which represents the order of zero and units (logic state) depending on the input signal, bigger or less the specified threshold level.
The trigger is made in case all the signals being passed to the logic inputs of the logical function chosen cause the change of this function state for “true” or “false” when the clock input state is changed or stable (level timing).
LRF is one of auto measurement types of a digital oscilloscope in the time domain (“Delay” menu item) which is used for the measurement of the time delay between the first rising edge of channel 1 and the last falling edge of channel 2.
LRR is one of auto measurement types of a digital oscilloscope in the time domain (“Delay” menu item) which is used for the measurement of the time delay between the first rising edge of channel 1 and the last rising edge of channel 2.
Measuring instrument reproducing or supplying, in a permanent manner during the use, quantities of one or more given kinds, each with an assigned value (weight piece, volume measure, standard electric resistor, line scale, gauge block, standard signal generator).
Scottish mathematical physicist. His most prominent achievement was to formulate a set of equations that describe electricity, magnetism, and optics as manifestations of the same phenomenon, namely the electromagnetic field. Maxwell's achievements concerning electromagnetism have been called the "second great unification in physics", after the first one realised by Isaac Newton.
Electrical test & measurement tools that interact with electricity are designed for specific applications and conditions. Exceeding or deviating from application parameter can lead to inaccurate measurements or injury. Therefore there are four primary measurement categories for electrical tools: CATI, CATII, CATIII and CAT IV.
Device used for making measurements, alone or in conjunction with supplementary device(s).
A measuring instrument alone may be considered to be a measuring system.
A measuring instrument may be an indicating measuring instrument or a material measure.
Device used in measurement which provides an output quantity having a specified relation to the input quantity (thermocouple, current transformer, strain gauge, pH electrode, Bourden tube, bimetal strip).
MegaZoom III is the third generation of the fast deep memory architecture in Agilent digital oscilloscopes which appeared in 1996. It combines fast deep memory with high speed of information capture and a high resolution display that allows detecting rare hidden signal aperiodicities.
One of the main functions of an oscilloscope is acquisition of the analog signal; that signal is then passed on to an analog to digital converter where the signal is digitized. Once it is digitized, that information has to be stored in memory, processed and plotted / displayed.
The component of the output noise power that arises from sources within the network under test. This component of output noise is usually differentiated from the component that comes from amplifying the noise that originates in the input source for the network.
All modern digital oscilloscopes regardless of the manufacturer have a significant noise level. The amplitude of the noise displayed on the screen of a digital oscilloscope (itself or the noise of the signal under measurement) depends on many factors including the sampling rate, signal brightness, persistence (inertia of the screen refreshing) and on the oscilloscope bandwidth as well.
A German physicist. As a high school teacher, Ohm began his research with the recently invented electrochemical cell, invented by Italian Count Alessandro Volta. Using equipment of his own creation, Ohm determined that there is a direct proportionality between the potential difference (voltage) applied across a conductor and the resultant electric current. This relationship is now known as Ohm's law.
The Oscilloscope is a type of electronic test instrument that allows observation of analog signals usually as a two-dimensional graph - the dependence of voltage (Y-axis, vertical) on time (X-axis, horizontal).
The trigger is made if during the specified period there has been no cross of the input signal with the specified voltage level in the specified direction. Pause report starts when the input signal crosses the specified voltage level in the specified direction.
Peak Detect is one of the acquisition modes in digital oscilloscope. Peak Detect mode captures the maximum and minimum signal values for each sample. It finds the highest and the lowest record points over many acquisitions.
For spectral analysis of oscilloscope signals there is algorithm of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) widely used. This fast and powerful tool gives opportunities to investigate the signal spectrum but unfortunately it also has its own disadvantages.
When testing a power supply in this mode the electronic load consumes constant power. If the input voltage rises the electronic load decreases the input current therefore the load power (=V * I) stays at the preset level.
Power supply to load four-wire (4-wire) connection method is designed for the influence decrease (compensation) of the connecting wires resistance. This feature is rather useful because the resistive value of the wires resistance, when connecting the load, distorts the set output voltage of the power supply.
Probe is a matching unit used for oscilloscope inputs connection to the electric circuit points under test. Inaccuracy of signal data measurement, the correctness of the displayed waveform under survey depend on probes.
The standard unit of angular measure, used in many areas of mathematics. An angle's measurement in radians is numerically equal to the length of a corresponding arc of a unit circle, so one radian is just under 57.3 degrees (when the arc length is equal to the radius).
Rant Trigger is pulse amplitude triggering which crosses the first threshold level but doesn’t cross the second threshold level before the recross of the first one. Positive and negative pulse triggering is possible.
Why exceptionally flush? When the end of a lead or wire must be soldered it is often necessary to have it as flush as possible to insure a highly reliable solder joint. If a wire is to be coated or if it needs to be threaded into some hole it may be necessary to have no burrs or “pinch” on the wire end. Delicate components are less likely to suffer shock when cut by an exceptionally flush cutter.
Real-time sampling is the only way to capture fast, single-shot, transient signals with a digital oscilloscope. Real-time sampling is ideal for signals whose frequency range is less than half the oscilloscope’s maximum sample rate.
When testing a power supply in this mode, there is current floating through the electronic load linearly proportional to the input voltage in accordance with the preset resistance. At the same time the use of a combined mode (constant resistance mode changing to direct voltage mode) additionally provides protection to the power supply under test against current surge during the changing process.
A Rogowski coil, named after Walter Rogowski, is an electrical device for measuring alternating current (AC) or high speed current pulses. It consists of a helical coil of wire with the lead from one end returning through the centre of the coil to the other end, so that both terminals are at the same end of the coil.
Sampling time is a time period between the adjacent samples in the time scale. In analog-digital converters which work in real time sampling interval is the sampling rate inverse value. In analog-digital converters which work in the equivalent time the time period between the adjacent samples is determined by the equivalent time, not the real one.
Tooling software. It contains various methods to develop user’s own software for the instrument supported, including the appropriate system driver. SDK user should have programming skills using the languages supported by this SDK. As a rule, the development kit contains the instrument documentation, ready functions to work with it, the examples of the original program texts showing the variants of these functions use and also different supplements to make it easier. SDK examples: Windows platform SDK – software development kit for Windows operating system, ACK3106_SDK – software development kit for DSO of ACK-3106 series.
For the presence of non-ideality and distributed parameters of components, actual components are usually equivalent to combined network of ideal components. In general, there are two simple equivalent models used in LCR meters, which are series model and parallel model.
Innovative SiFi (Signal Fidelity) technology provides signal generation on “point by point” principle. This technology helps to achieve the best quality of the generated signal with low jitter, low distortion level and high precision of frequency setting.
Signal attenuation is the degree of signal amplitude contraction after passing through an attenuator device (probe or attenuator). Signal attenuation is determined by the input signal to output signal ratio. For example, 10X probe attenuates (reduce) the input signal voltage by 10.
SCPI is the Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments based on the IEEE488.1 and IEEE488.2 Standards. It conforms to IEEE754 Standard for Floating-Point Arithmetic, ISO646 7-bit Coded Character Sets for Information Exchange, and other kinds of standards.
Static electricity is a set of phenomenon associated with the appearance, maintenance and relaxation of a free electric charge on the surface or in the volume of dielectrics or in insulated conductors.
Switch is a network device destined for the connection of several Ethernet units into the common network segment. Comparing to a hub which distributes the traffic from one connected unit to the rest of units, switch transfers data to the receiver directly.
Designed for use with new Tektronix® oscilloscopes including the DPO7000 Series, TekVPI™ (Tektronix Versatile Probe Interface) probes provide intelligent bi-directional oscilloscope/probe communications resulting in a simplified user experience and easier access to relevant information while preserving excellent signal fidelity.
Test & Measurement World is a community of engineers who are working at the cutting edge as well as in the trenches of electronic test. Its goal is to support engineers, developers, and industry-related management in their test needs.
One of the popular methods to store measurement data is a text file. In it data is saved in a simple text format which can be clearly understood. Although this format is not efficient for a program it’s easy to use and allows user to process data manually.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) was founded in 1901 and is now part of the U.S. Department of Commerce. NIST is one of the nation's oldest physical science laboratories. Congress established the agency to remove a major challenge to U.S. industrial competitiveness at the time – a second-rate measurement infrastructure that lagged behind the capabilities of the United Kingdom, Germany, and other economic rivals.
Thermistor (thermoresistor) is a semiconductor resistor, which electrical resistance considerably depends on temperature. It is used for registration, temperature measurement in thermal control systems, in power meters and other devices.
A thermocouple consists of two conductors of different materials (usually metal alloys) that produce a voltage in the vicinity of the point where the two conductors are in contact. The voltage produced is dependent on, but not necessarily proportional to, the difference of temperature of the junction to other parts of those conductors. Thermocouples are a widely used type of temperature sensor for measurement and control and can also be used to convert a temperature gradient into electricity.
Traceability is the thread that connects your calibrated tools to established references and standards. It confirms that your instruments will measure accepted units (whether electronic, optical, or dimensional) to agreed levels of accuracy. Traceability is key to meeting worldwide measurement, trade and regulatory requirements.
Tracking mode is one of multi-channel power supply control modes in which single channel (driving) control means an identical change of the same parameter of another channel (driven), i.e. as a result the parameters of both channels change simultaneously.
It is a rise time trigger, fall time trigger or both. Input signal trigger, the signal goes between two thresholds for the time which is more or less then the specified value; within or beyond the specified time interval.
As a rule in AC measuring process we are interested in the value equivalent to DC which action would cause the same thermal effect as the action of AC under measurement. This value is called current root-mean-square value (or RMS).
Type B thermocouples use a platinum–rhodium alloy for each conductor. One conductor contains 30% rhodium while the other conductor contains 6% rhodium. These thermocouples are suited for use at up to 1800°C / 3272°F. Type B thermocouples produce the same output at 0°C and 42°C / 32°F and 107.6°F, limiting their use below about 50°C / 122°F.
Type C (tungsten 5% rhenium – tungsten 26% rhenium) thermocouples are suited for measurements in the 0°C to 2320°C / 32°F to 4208°F range. This thermocouple is well-suited for vacuum furnaces at extremely high temperatures. It must never be used in the presence of oxygen at temperatures above 260°C / 500°F.
Type E (chromel–constantan) has a high output (68 µV/°C) which makes it well suited to cryogenic use. Additionally, it is non-magnetic. Wide range is -50 to 740°C / -58 to 1364°F and Narrow range is -110 to 140°C / -166 to 284°F.
Type J (iron–constantan) has a more restricted range than type K (-40 to +750°C / -40 to 1382°F), but higher sensitivity of about 55 µV/°C. The Curie point of the iron (770°C / 1418°F) causes an abrupt change in the characteristic, which determines the upper temperature limit.
Type K is the most common general purpose thermocouple with a sensitivity of approximately 41 µV/°C, chromel positive relative to alumel. It is inexpensive, and a wide variety of probes are available in its −200°C to +1250°C / -328°F to + 2282°F range.
Type M thermocouples use a nickel alloy for each wire. The positive wire (20 Alloy) contains 18% molybdenum while the negative wire (19 Alloy) contains 0.8% cobalt. These thermocouples are used in vacuum furnaces for the same reasons as with type C. Upper temperature is limited to 1400°C / 2552°F. It is less commonly used than other types.
Type N (Nicrosil–Nisil) (nickel-chromium-silicon/nickel-silicon) thermocouples are suitable for use between -270°C and 1300°C / -454 and 2372°F owing to its stability and oxidation resistance. Sensitivity is about 39 µV/°C at 900°C / 1652°F, slightly lower compared to type K.
Type S thermocouples are constructed using one wire of 90% Platinum and 10% Rhodium (the positive or "+" wire) and a second wire of 100% platinum (the negative or "-" wire). Like type R, type S thermocouples are used up to 1600°C / 2912°F. In particular, type S is used as the standard of calibration for the melting point of gold (1064.43°C / 1947.98°F).
Type T (copper – constantan) thermocouples are suited for measurements in the −200 to 350°C range / -328 to 662°F. Often used as a differential measurement since only copper wire touches the probes. Since both conductors are non-magnetic, there is no Curie point and thus no abrupt change in characteristics. Type T thermocouples have a sensitivity of about 43 µV/°C.
UltraVision innovative technology combines easy navigation of the captured signal, deep memory depth, ultra-wide dynamic range, perfect signal capture ratio, signal record with wide capabilities of its analysis, variable functions of triggering and decoding, signal displaying with controllable brightness.
USBTMC was introduced in order to support USB interface of test and measurement devices. For such devices there were lots of developments which used GRIB (IEEE488) commands therefore USBTMC is also the same commands-oriented.
USB consists of host-controller, the main controller that is included into the system unit and controls the transmission of packets on the bus. There can be only one host on USB. PC system unit contains one or several hosts and each of them controls a separate USB.
A small helper application. As a rule, it is an addition to the main application and used for an instrument presetting, file operations and the provision of advanced user functions.
Utility examples: anti-viruses, equipment test programs, equipment configuration programs, and file converters.
Synchronization on video signal is used for the edge or line trigger from the synchronizing pulses of the standard video signals. The trigger mode on video signal is used to carry out the oscillograms of video signals fields and lines in NTSC, PAL or SECAM standards.
The volt (symbol: V) is the SI derived unit for electric potential (voltage), electric potential difference, and electromotive force. The volt is named in honor of the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta.
Count Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta was an Italian physicist known especially for the invention of the battery in 1800. Volta also studied what we now call electrical capacitance, developing separate means to study both electrical potential (V) and charge (Q), and discovering that for a given object they are proportional. This may be called Volta's Law of capacitance, and likely for this work the unit of electrical potential has been named the Volt.
In DC voltage mode the power supply will produce current in accordance with the resistance value of the load, at the same time the specified input voltage will stay invariable. The retention of the preset voltage will last until the maximum acceptable current in the load is achieved. As a rule when the current exceeds the norm (current overload) the power supply automatically changes to current stabilization mode. If the power supply is not protected against current overload it will get out of order in case of such overload.
A Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer whose improvements to the Newcomen steam engine were fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both his native Great Britain and the rest of the world.
Wave Inspector is a standard function of any Tektronix DPO3000 series models, considered innovative. It significantly simplifies ordinary and at the same time laborious debugging tasks: recorded signals research in order to find some separate events of interest. Earlier it was made manually by the data scrolling and the check of the passing signal flow.
Waveform generator is a calibrated (standard) signal source of different types and frequencies intended for operations with electronic circuits and measurements in them. Synonym is standard signal generator.
This is a random signal (or process) with a flat power spectral density. In other words, the signal contains equal power within a fixed bandwidth at any center frequency. White noise draws its name from white light in which the power spectral density of the light is distributed over the visible band in such a way that the eye's three color receptors (cones) are approximately equally stimulated.
New wireless standard WiGig has been developed by WiGig Alliance as a unified specification for 60 GHz wireless technologies that will provide multi-gigabit wireless connectivity among PCs, consumer electronics and handheld devices.
A mathematical physicist and engineer. At the University of Glasgow he did important work in the mathematical analysis of electricity and formulation of the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and did much to unify the emerging discipline of physics in its modern form.
X-Y mode is a specialized two-channel mode of oscilloscopes when the signal of channel 1 is used for the deviation along the horizontal axis (X) and the signal of channel 2 – along the vertical axis (Y).
Zoom or fragment expansion mode allows expanding a marked oscillogram zone in the horizontal area throughout the full width of the display. Such fragment expansion of the basic oscillogram is used for more detailed signal analysis with higher horizontal resolution.
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This universal gadget converts 10 types of measurement units: Length, Weight, Temperature, Volume, Area, Speed, Time, Pressure and Energy.
It is easy to use and is available in English and Spanish.