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Design Engineer Valued Creative Encyclopedia

About D.E.V.I.C.E.
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+Duty

A type of automatic measurements. Measures the first cycle waveform. Positive Duty Cycle is the ratio between positive pulse width (t)and period (T).

+Wid

A type of automatic measurements. +Wid measures the time between the first rising edge and the next falling edge at 50% level of the waveform.

-Duty

A type of automatic measurements. Measures the first cycle waveform. Negative Duty Cycle is the ratio between negative pulse width and period.

-Wid

A type of automatic measurements. -Wid measures the time between the first falling edge and the next rising edge at 50% level of the waveform.

The accuracy of a digital tester is defined as the difference between the reading and the true value for a quantity measured in reference conditions.

Addition (+)
Addition is a mathematical function in digital oscilloscopes.

Afterglow is a gradual decrease in the brightness of oscillogram points on a scope display. Depending on the mode used brightness can stay steady or reduce with a specified speed.

Aiken, Howard Hathaway
Howard Hathaway Aiken (March 8, 1900 – March 14, 1973) was a pioneer in computing, being the original conceptual designer behind IBM's Harvard Mark I computer.

AKTAKOM Universal Lab format .aul
For data files of AKTAKOM software they use AKTAKOM Universal Lab container format (“.aul” extension). This format allows different applications to exchange data.

Aliasing
When you change horizontal sweep on a digital oscilloscope you can see the waveform changing of the same signal on different horizontal sweeps.
It’s important to take into consideration the fact that you work with a digital oscilloscope and it digitizes a signal with different sampling rate depending on the horizontal sweep chosen, and afterwards it connects the digitized points with a smooth line (interpolates them), restores the real signal waveform.

An electric current that changes direction rapidly. The current available from regular wall outlets is alternating current.

Alternative trigger
Two-channeled alternative triggering for simultaneous observation of two nonsynchronized signals.

Ampere (A)
The ampere (symbol: A) is the SI unit of electric current (symbol: I) and is one of the seven SI base units. It is named after André-Marie Ampère (1775–1836), French mathematician and physicist, considered the father of electrodynamics. In practice, its name is often shortened to amp.

The difference between maximum and minimum signal values.

Amplitude Modulation
Amplitude Modulation is analogue signal (carrier) amplitude changing.

Analog bar graph
A graphic representation of the quantity under test.

Analog waveform generators

Analog generators contain frequency-sensitive circuits for self-excitation condition at the specified frequencies.

André-Marie Ampère
A French physicist and mathematician who is generally regarded as one of the main discoverers of electromagnetism. The SI unit of measurement of electric current, the ampere, is named after him.

In physics, the angular velocity is defined as the rate of change of angular displacement and is a vector quantity (more precisely, a pseudovector) which specifies the angular speed (rotational speed) of an object and the axis about which the object is rotating.

ANSI
Since it was founded in 1918, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) has coordinated the development of voluntary consensus standards in the United States and has represented the needs and views of U.S. stakeholders in standardization forums around the globe. ANSI is the U.S. member body to ISO and, via its U.S. National Committee, the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). ANSI is also a member of the International Accreditation Forum (IAF).

Antistatic table tops
Antistatic table tops are made of conductive materials and are used for workplaces with electronic equipment, control panels, labs, i.e. in those places that require electrostatic charge decay.

Application software
An Instrument-PC-Human hierarchy application software that takes the top level of software and is used to complete user tasks.
The software directly cooperates with a human but for equipment access a system driver should be used.
Application examples: text editor, picture viewers, measurement map programs and PC control programs.

Arbitrary Waveform Generator
As a rule arbitrary waveform generator is a sort of function generator capable of generating arbitrary waveforms. The majority of modern arbitrary waveform generators use direct digital synthesis (DDS) to generate an output signal, i.e. they are digital.

Area
One of the auto measurement types in digital oscilloscopes, relating to a derivative measurement type of amplitude and time, is the definition of an area under the waveform curve.

ASK - amplitude shift keying
Amplitude shift keying is a signal transform method when the carrying oscillation amplitude changes abruptly depending on the discrete data messages.

AULNet
Communication between the remote device and AKTAKOM remote control software is based on the AULNet technology. TCP/IP socket subset, familiar to UNIX and Windows users, forms network communication endpoints.

Automatic measurement
Automatic measurement is a function in modern digital oscilloscopeswhich allows measuring different types of values automatically: in amplitude and time domains.

AutoSet is an oscilloscope function which allows getting a steady signal image of a convenient size automatically.

Average
Average is one of the acquisition modes in digital oscilloscope. The averaged waveform is a running average over a specified number of N acquisitions.

Bandwidth
Oscilloscope bandwidth is a frequency range where oscilloscope signal attenuation doesn’t exceed – 3 dB relative to reference frequency signal.

Bandwidth limit
Bandwidth limit is an oscilloscope mode when its upper frequency of the bandwidth intentionally reduces to the frequency which is several times lower.

Base unit
Measurement unit that is adopted by convention for a base quantity. For example: The International System of Units (SI) defines seven units of measure as a basic set from which all other SI units are derived.

Quoted accuracy is specified as the minimum DC voltage or lower ‘mV’ DC range accuracy.

Basic measurement concepts in oscillography
Signal amplitude and time interval measurement parameters

Best in Test
The Best in Test awards are presented annually by the editors of Test & Measurement World. These awards honor important and innovative new products and services in the electronics test and measurement industry.

A metal strip that is actually composed of two different kinds of metals. A bimetallic strip bends or straightens depending on its temperature, and is the central component of a thermal switch.

Binary format files .bin
In an ordinary case device software (built-in or external) saves data the way they are represented inside of the program. File represents just binary data array of indefinite format. Usually such files get a name with “.bin” extension.

Ratio of the bit errors number to the bits total number of the measured signal in the specified time interval.

Bluetooth (IEEE 802.15.1)
Bluetooth wireless technology is built into a wide range of products helping to share different types of information wirelessly between two paired devices.

BWid

A type of automatic measurements. The duration of a burst measured over the entire waveform.

The set of operations that establish, under specified conditions, the relationship between values of quantities indicated by a measuring instrument or measuring system, or values represented by a material measure or a reference material, and the corresponding values realized by standards.

The set of interrelated or interacting elements necessary to maintain the measurement performance of measuring and test equipment to defined requirements.

Candela (cd)
The candela (symbol: cd) is the SI base unit of luminous intensity; that is, power emitted by a light source in a particular direction, weighted by the luminosity function (a standardized model of the sensitivity of the human eye to different wavelengths, also known as the luminous efficiency function).

An essential feature of any conductor system, its ability to store an electrical charge and create an electric field.

An electric device used to store charge in circuits. If you decide to unplug high-voltage equipment with a screwdriver, you might find a large capacitor that is still charged up which is very dangerous!

Celsius (C)
Unit of measurement for temperature. It is named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius, who developed a similar temperature scale.

Celsius, Anders
A Swedish astronomer, talented mathematician, a professor of astronomy at Uppsala University, the first to perform and publish careful experiments aiming at the definition of an international temperature scale on scientific grounds.

Channel is a separate input used for the signal record with a device.

Charles-Augustin de Coulomb
French physicist. He was best known for developing Coulomb's law, the definition of the electrostatic force of attraction and repulsion. The SI unit of electric charge, the coulomb, was named after him.

Circuit breaker
A device that opens an electric circuit when the current in the circuit exceeds a certain value. Circuit breakers protect devices in electric circuits and prevent fires.

Clamp meters
Asort of measuring instrument equipped with a measuring sensor to measure current.

An electric circuit that has no gaps in it and makes a continuous path, allowing current to flow through the circuit.

The process of positive or negative charges moving from one place to another. It is a reciprocal value of electrical resistance.

A material that allows electric currents to flow through it without much difficulty.

Combination of bin files efficiency and text files universality can be achieved with the help of container files. These files keep arbitrary binary data in the predetermined format allowing you to use standard functions and utilities for further operation with them.

Continuity test
An operation to check electric circuit or its part continuity, and also the ways to detect fault locations, circuit disconnection, unreliable contacts or a low resistance part, as well as, any failed parts.

SI derived unit of electric charge. It is defined as the charge transported by a steady current of one ampere in one second.

Crest-factor (form factor) is signal amplitude to its rms value ratio. Crest-factor is an important indicator when analyzing the supply voltage quality.

Crms (Cycrms)
A type of automatic measurements. The true Root Mean Square voltage over the first cycle in the waveform.

In DC mode a power supply will produce current in accordance with the specified value regardless of the preset input voltage. If at some point the maximum current of the power supply under test exceeds the set current (the load resistance of the power supply will drop) the voltage of the power supply under test will drop. Typically, for a mode indication there should be LED used with "CC" marking.

Cursor measurements
“Cursor measurements” is the mode in which an oscilloscope determines the cursors positions on Y- or X-axes and calculates the difference between these cursors positions.

Cursors
Pair markers used for measurement by two data points (in an oscilloscope or logic analyzer). Vertical cursors are two movable vertical lines used for the measurement of temporary oscillogram parameters (e.g. signal T period). Horizontal cursors are two horizontal movable lines used to measure the signal level parameters.

Cycle area
One of the auto measurement types in digital oscilloscopes, relating to a derivative measurement type of amplitude and time, is the definition of an area under one (e.g. the first one) waveform cycle.

DDS is a rather new frequency synthesis method which appeared in early 70s, last century. All the methods described have been available to the developers for decades but only recently such a close attention has been paid to DDS. Nowadays the appearance of cheap micro circuits with DDS and convenient development tools make them attractive for various application fields.

Delay A→B means time delay measurement between the edges of two signals. Meanwhile the edges should be both falling or rising.

Delay A→B¯ means time delay measurement between the edges of two signals. The first edge should be rising andthe second one – falling or vice versa.

Derived unit
Measurement unit for a derived quantity. Examples: the metre per second (m/s) and the centimeter per second (cm/s) are derived units of speed in the SI. The kilometre per hour (km/h) is a unit of speed outside the SI but accepted for use with the SI. The knot, equal to one nautical mile per hour, is a unit of speed outside the SI.

Device driver
System software.
Lower level software. It is built into the operating system and provides the access for the applications to the hardware resources of the instrument supported. This software type doesn’t cooperate directly with a user.
Device driver examples: keyboard driver, USB flash drive driver, USB-oscilloscope driver.

Dielectric Absorption Ratio is a ratio of two insulation resistances values usually measured at 30 sec and 1 min time slot.

Digital
Digital is used to shown the precision or the resolving ability of devices with digital indicator.

Conversion of discrete sequence of digital data, which represents a signal amplitude at certain points of time, to continuous analog signal.

Diopter (dpt)
Aunit of measurement of the optical power of a lens or curved mirror, which is equal to the reciprocal of the focal length measured in metres (that is, 1/metres).

An electric current that flows in only one direction. Batteries produce direct current.

The resolution of a multimeter is the smallest part of the scale which can be shown. It’s often specified in the number of decimal digits resolved and displayed.

Division (/)
Division is a mathematical function in digital oscilloscopes.

Dynamic measurement is the measurement of a physical quantity which is changing in size.

Edge trigger
Edge triggering is performed when the signal level of synchronization source passes through the specified voltage level in the prescribed direction.

Edge-triggered synchronization
An edge trigger occurs when the input signal crosses the specified voltage level in the chosen direction.
Depending on the functionality of oscilloscope capabilities the trigger can occur on rising, falling or rising & falling edge.

Effective number of bits is the feature which reflects the signal quality (or its quality reduction) of analog-digital system in some frequency range. ENOB is defined by IEEE1057 specifications. Besides that IEEE1057 specifications describe the ENOB measurement methods. ENOB is generally acknowledged quality index of ADC, Oscilloscopes and some other discretization systems.

Einstein, Albert
AGerman theoretical physicist who developed the theory of general relativity, effecting a revolution in physics.

Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when close to other electrically charged matter. There are two types of electric charges, called positive and negative.

The name given to any collection of wires and / or electric components.

Any arrangement of charges that has a definite separation of positive and negative charges. Many atoms and molecules are naturally occurring electric dipoles.

A scientific model that one can use to explain how electric charges affect one another.

A measure of how much a given device restricts the flow of electric current.

The generic name given to any device that causes an electric current to flow continuously.

Electronic load
Electronic load is an electronic device designed to simulate different operating modes of load while testing power supplies.

ETS allows a digital oscilloscope to capture high–frequency signals with a much higher effective sampling rate.

External trigger signal
External synchronization signal is a synchronizing pulse which is external relatively to the measuring device (oscilloscope, generator, logic analyzer etc.) and it usually synchronizes with the system under test.

An eye diagram is created when many short segments of a waveform are superimposed such that the nominal edge locations and voltage levels are aligned.

Fahrenheit (F)
Temperature scale proposed in 1724 by, and named after, the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit.

Fahrenheit, Daniel Gabriel
A Dutch-German-Polish physicist, engineer, and glass blower who is best known for inventing the alcohol thermometer (1709) and the mercury thermometer (1714), and for developing a temperature scale now named after him.

Fall Time

The time period for which the pulse level changes starting from thetop reference value (usually 90 %) down to the low reference value (usually 10%)

SI derived unit of capacitance named after English physicist Michael Faraday.

Faraday, Michael
English scientist who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. His main discoveries include those of electromagnetic induction, diamagnetism and electrolysis.

FFF
FFF is one of the auto measurement types of a digital oscilloscope locatedin the time domain (“Delay” menu item), which is used for the measurement of the time delay between the first falling edge of channel 1 and the first falling edge of channel 2.

FFR
FFR - is one of theauto measurement types of a digital oscilloscope locatedin the time domain (“Delay” menu item) which is used for the measurement of the time delay between the first falling edge of channel 1 and the first rising edge of channel 2.

FFT (fast Fourier transform)
Fast Fourier transform (FFT) is a digital oscilloscope mathematical function which converts a time-domain signal into its frequency components mathematically namely performing signal spectral analysis.

Files .csv
To store measurement data they usually use CSV format (Comma-Separated Values) with “.csv” extension.

Firewall
Firewall is a hardware and programming tool set which controls and filters network packages passing through it in accordance with the specified rules. Its function is the protection of computer networks and separate knots from unauthorized access.

Any noise whose power spectral density varies inversely with frequency.

In physics, a force is any influence that causes an object to undergo a certain change, either concerning its movement, direction, or geometrical construction. It is measured with the SI unit of newtons and represented by the symbol F.

FOVShoot
A type of automatic measurements. The measurement of U (shoot) at the bottom on the falling edge.

FPREshoot
A type of automatic measurements. The measurement of U shoot at the top on the falling edge.

Frequency
Frequency signal measurement.

Frequency modulation
In frequency Modulation a carrier is more high-frequency comparing to the information signal and frequency-modulated signal amplitude is steady.

FRF
FRF - is one of theauto measurement types of a digital oscilloscope locatedin the time domain (“Delay” menu item) which is used for the measurement of the time delay between the first rising edge of channel 1 and the first falling edge of channel 2.

FRR
FRR - is one of the auto measurement types of a digital oscilloscope located in the time domain (“Delay” menu item) which is used for the measurement of the time delay between the first rising edge of channel 1 and the first rising edge of channel 2.

FSK - frequency shift keying
Frequency shift keying is a signal transform method when the carrying oscillation frequency changes abruptly depending on the discrete data messages.

Function generator
As a rule function generator is a sort of a waveform generator capable of generating different signal waveforms (there are usually 3 typical signals: sine, square, triangle/sawtooth).

An electric device that fries when the current through it goes above a certain magnitude, thus creating an open circuit and preventing current from flowing.

Galvanic isolation of signal circuits means absence of DC coupling between them, “circuit ground” and other supply buses. Upon availability of galvanic isolation the potential of signal circuits against “circuit ground” can be significant but it can’t exceed the isolation voltage acceptable for the current interface.

A meter that indicates the magnitude of an electric current.

Noise whose probability distribution or probability density function is gaussian. Noise that is steady or stationary in character and originates from the sum of a large number of small events, tends to be gaussian by the central limit theorem of probability theory.

Glitch is a pulse noise of different origin.

Glitch trigger
A special case of pulse width trigger is glitch trigger. In general glitch is a short pulse disturbance of uncontrolled parameters.
Glitch synchronization is pulse trigger of the width which is less than the sampling period.

Ground (or grounding)
In electrical engineering, ground (grounding) or earth can refer to the reference point in an electrical circuit from which other voltages are measured, or a common return path for electric current, or a direct physical connection to the Earth.

The offset of a measurement decision value from a stated specification or tolerance.

Hall effect
The Hall effect is the production of a voltage difference (the Hall voltage) across an electrical conductor, transverse to an electric current in the conductor and a magnetic field perpendicular to the current.

A Hall probe contains an indium compound semiconductor crystal such as indium antimonide, mounted on an aluminum backing plate, and encapsulated in the probe head. The plane of the crystal is perpendicular to the probe handle. Connecting leads from the crystal are brought down through the handle to the circuit box.

The SI derived unit of inductance.

Henry, Joseph
An American scientist who while building electromagnets discovered the electromagnetic phenomenon of self-inductance, discovered mutual inductance, also he is an inventor of the electric doorbell (1831) and relay (1835).

The hertz (symbol Hz) is the SI unit of frequency defined as the number of cycles per second of a periodic phenomenon.

Hertz, Heinrich Rudolf
A German physicist who clarified and expanded James Clerk Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light, which was first demonstrated by David Edward Hughes using non-rigorous trial and error procedures. Hertz is distinguished from Maxwell and Hughes because he was the first to conclusively prove the existence of electromagnetic waves by engineering instruments to transmit and receive radio pulses using experimental procedures that ruled out all other known wireless phenomena. The scientific unit of frequency — cycles per second — was named the "hertz" in his honor.

Hold time
Hold time is minimal time for the data set and stability after the appearance of the clock pulse.

Horizontal delay
Horizontal delay is the time period between trigger moment and registration in digital oscilloscopes.

Hub
Hub is a network device destined for the connection of several Ethernet units into the common network segment.

IEEE-488 / GPIB (General Purpose Interface Bus)
IEEE-488 General purpose interface bus and appropriate protocol are widely used in hardware-software systems for the connection of PC and work station with measurement instruments (e.g. in data acquisition systems).

The concept when dealing with alternating current that is equivalent to the concept of resistance when dealing with direct current.

Indicating measuring instrument
Measuring instrument providing an output signal carrying information about the value of the quantity being measured. For example: ammeter, micrometer, thermometer, electronic balance.

In electromagnetism and electronics, inductance is that property of a conductor by which a change in current in the conductor "induces" (creates) a voltage (electromotive force) in both the conductor itself (self-inductance) and any nearby conductors (mutual inductance).

Infrared thermometers (operation principle)
Infrared thermometers measure the temperature of an object surface.

Installer
As a rule, before software use, it should first be installed into the operating system which means copying necessary files to the PC, registering necessary services, creating shortcuts and a menu for user access to the applications. This task is completed by a special utility-installer. It is usually launched by an executable file named Setup.exe. Then, by means of dialog with the user, it creates the whole software installation procedure, beginning from the packed type supplied by the seller, up to finish when the application can be used on the computer.

A material that does not generally conduct an electric current. Common insulators are rubber, air, and wood.

A collection of various logic circuits put together in a rather small package. Integrated circuits are essential components of most modern electric devices, from televisions to computers.

International Accreditation Forum (IAF)
The IAF is the world association of Conformity Assessment Accreditation Bodies and other bodies interested in conformity assessment in the fields of management systems, products, services, personnel and other similar programmes of conformity assessment.

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)
Worlds leading organization for the preparation and publication of International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies. These are known collectively as electrotechnology.

International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (ILAC)
ILAC is the international organisation for accreditation bodies operating in accordance with ISO/IEC 17011 and involved in the accreditation of conformity assessment bodies including calibration laboratories (using ISO/IEC 17025), testing laboratories (using ISO/IEC 17025), medical testing laboratories (using ISO 15189) and inspection bodies (using ISO/IEC 17020).

International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
ISO is an independent, non-governmental international organization with a membership of 162 national standards bodies. Through its members, it brings together experts to share knowledge and develop voluntary, consensus-based, market relevant International Standards that support innovation and provide solutions to global challenges.

International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
ITU is the United Nations specialized agency for information and communication technologies ICTs.

Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of physical objects.

Interpolation
Interpolation in digital storage oscilloscopes is continuous signal reconstruction on a limited reports number (samples).

IP address
An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device (e.g., computer, printer) participating in a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication.

Java
Programming language and computing platform. It is the underlying technology that powers state-of-the-art programs including utilities, games, and business applications.

JavaScript
An open, cross-platform object scripting language for the creation and customization of applications on enterprise networks and the Internet.

The joule, symbol J, is a derived unit of energy, work, or amount of heat in the International System of Units.

Joule, James Prescott
An English physicist, born in Salford, Lancashire. Joule studied the nature of heat, and discovered its relationship to mechanical work. This led to the theory of conservation of energy, which led to the development of the first law of thermodynamics. The SI derived unit of energy, the joule, is named after him.

Kelvin (K)
The kelvin is a unit of measurement for temperature. It is one of the seven base units in the International System of Units (SI) and is assigned the unit symbol K.

Keying
Keying is the transition process of one or several high-frequency signal (which is called carrier) parameters under the law of low-frequency discrete data message.

Kilby, Jack St. Clair
Jack St. Clair Kilby (November 8, 1923 – June 20, 2005) was an American electrical engineer who took part in the realization of the first integrated circuit while working at Texas Instruments (TI) in 1958.
He is also the inventor of the handheld calculator and the thermal printer, for which he has patents. He also has patents for seven other inventions.

Kilogram (kg)
The kilogram or kilogramme (kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI) which is the modern standard governing the metric system.

LAN (Local Area Network)
LAN is Local Area Network of a group of computers and/or any other devices placed at a relatively short distance and connected by specialized cables in order to exchange data and use common resources, such as printers, Internet access etc.

LFF
LFF is one of auto measurement types of a digital oscilloscope in the time domain (“Delay” menu item) which is used for the measurement of the time delay between the first falling edge of channel 1 and the last falling edge of channel 2.

LFR
LFR is one of auto measurement types of a digital oscilloscope in the time domain (“Delay” menu item) which is used for the measurement of the time delay between the first falling edge of channel 1 and the last rising edge of channel 2.

Rate at which a body moves in a straight line from one location to another.

Lissajous curve
Also known as Lissajous figure or Bowditch curve. It is the graph of a system of parametric equations which describe complex harmonic motion.

Logic analyzer is a multichannel device for acquisition, saving and displaying of data which represents the order of zero and units (logic state) depending on the input signal, bigger or less the specified threshold level.

Electric circuits that operate using the formalism of logic statements.

The trigger is made when a signal passed to the logic inputs causes the change of the specified function state for “true” or false.

Logic sequence generator, pattern generator
Logic sequence generator, pattern generator is a technical device, generator which forms signals to work with digital electronic circuits on several outputs at the same time.

Logic state synchronization
The trigger is made in case all the signals being passed to the logic inputs of the logical function chosen cause the change of this function state for “true” or false when the clock input state is changed or stable (level timing).

LRF
LRF is one of auto measurement types of a digital oscilloscope in the time domain (“Delay” menu item) which is used for the measurement of the time delay between the first rising edge of channel 1 and the last falling edge of channel 2.

LRR
LRR is one of auto measurement types of a digital oscilloscope in the time domain (“Delay” menu item) which is used for the measurement of the time delay between the first rising edge of channel 1 and the last rising edge of channel 2.

LTE (3GPP Long Term Evolution)
LTE (3GPP Long Term Evolution) is the name of the mobile data transfer protocol. 3GPP is a standard to improve CDMA, UMTS technologies in order to meet data transfer rate requirements in the future.

Lumen (lm)
The SI derived unit of luminous flux, a measure of the total "amount" of visible light emitted by a source.

Lux (lx)
The SI unit of illuminance and luminous emittance, measuring luminous flux per unit area.

MAC address (Media Access Control address)
A Media Access Control address (MAC address) is a unique identifier assigned to network interfaces for communications on the physical network segment.

Material measure
Measuring instrument reproducing or supplying, in a permanent manner during the use, quantities of one or more given kinds, each with an assigned value (weight piece, volume measure, standard electric resistor, line scale, gauge block, standard signal generator).

Mathematical functions
Mathematical functions in digital oscilloscopes is a capability to perform mathematical operations between channels and to see the final oscillogram displayed.

First figure of range in advertisement and catalogues usually means less significant digit on minimal range.

Maxwell, James Clerk
Scottish mathematical physicist. His most prominent achievement was to formulate a set of equations that describe electricity, magnetism, and optics as manifestations of the same phenomenon, namely the electromagnetic field. Maxwell's achievements concerning electromagnetism have been called the "second great unification in physics", after the first one realised by Isaac Newton.

Mean

A type of automatic measurements. Thearithmetic mean measurementof the entire waveform.

The result of a process to provide adequate confidence that a measurement will satisfy stated requirements.

Measurement categories (CATI, CATII, CATIII, CATIV)
Electrical test & measurement tools that interact with electricity are designed for specific applications and conditions. Exceeding or deviating from application parameter can lead to inaccurate measurements or injury. Therefore there are four primary measurement categories for electrical tools: CATI, CATII, CATIII and CAT IV.

The probability that an incorrect decision will result from a measurement.

The set of operations to determine the value of a measurement quantity.

An attribute of a phenomenon, artifact, or substance that may be distinguished qualitatively and determined quantitatively.

The probability that all the applicable measurement quantities of measuring and test equipment are within tolerance.

Measurement unit, unit of measurement, unit
It is a scalar quantity, defined and adopted by convention, with which any other quantity of the same kind can be compared to express the ratio of the two quantities as a number.

The measuring instrument, measurement standard, reference material or auxiliary apparatus, or a combination thereof, necessary to realize a measurement process.

Measuring instrument
Device used for making measurements, alone or in conjunction with supplementary device(s). A measuring instrument alone may be considered to be a measuring system. A measuring instrument may be an indicating measuring instrument or a material measure.

Measuring transducer
Device used in measurement which provides an output quantity having a specified relation to the input quantity (thermocouple, current transformer, strain gauge, pH electrode, Bourden tube, bimetal strip).

Level corresponding the half of difference between the main upper and lower levels.

MegaZoom III
MegaZoom III is the third generation of the fast deep memory architecture in Agilent digital oscilloscopes which appeared in 1996. It combines fast deep memory with high speed of information capture and a high resolution display that allows detecting rare hidden signal aperiodicities.

One of the main functions of an oscilloscope is acquisition of the analog signal; that signal is then passed on to an analog to digital converter where the signal is digitized. Once it is digitized, that information has to be stored in memory, processed and plotted / displayed.

Meter (m)
The metre (or meter), symbol m, is the base unit of length in the International System of Units (SI).

Mode

Thetrigger mode determines the starting of recording (data collection) order in oscilloscope.

Mode Auto
The registration (data acquisition) is made regardless of the fulfillment of the triggering terms, the data registration is typically reset after the data acquisition.

Mode Normal
The registration (data acquisition) begins after the appearance of the specified trigger term. The registration restarts after data acquisition.

Mode Single
The registration (data acquisition) begins after the appearance of the specified trigger term. The registration doesn’t restart after data acquisition.

The main modulation function is signal transformation or transfer from low-frequency range to higher for further transfer through radio or cable carrier line.

Mole (mol)
The mole is a unit of measurement used in chemistry to express amounts of a chemical substance. It is one of the base units in the International System of Units, and has the unit symbol mol.

MSa/s or GSa/s

MSa/s(MegaSAmples per Second) A measurement of sampling rate in millions of samples per second

GSa/s(GigaSAmples per Second) A measurement of sampling rate in giga of samples per second

Multiplication (*)
Multiplication is a mathematical functionin digital oscilloscopes.

SI derived unit of force. It is equal to the amount of net force required to accelerate a mass of one kilogram at a rate of one meter per second squared.

Newton, Isaac
English physicist and mathematician who is widely regarded as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution.

The component of the output noise power that arises from sources within the network under test. This component of output noise is usually differentiated from the component that comes from amplifying the noise that originates in the input source for the network.

Noise level (Random noise)
All modern digital oscilloscopes regardless of the manufacturer have a significant noise level. The amplitude of the noise displayed on the screen of a digital oscilloscope (itself or the noise of the signal under measurement) depends on many factors including the sampling rate, signal brightness, persistence (inertia of the screen refreshing) and on the oscilloscope bandwidth as well.

The temperature (Ta) that yields the available power spectral density from a source. It is obtained when the corresponding reflection coefficients for the generator and load are complex conjugates.

Ohm, Georg Simon
A German physicist. As a high school teacher, Ohm began his research with the recently invented electrochemical cell, invented by Italian Count Alessandro Volta. Using equipment of his own creation, Ohm determined that there is a direct proportionality between the potential difference (voltage) applied across a conductor and the resultant electric current. This relationship is now known as Ohm's law.

In electronics, an opto-isolator, also called an optocoupler, photocoupler, or optical isolator, is a component that transfers electrical signals between two isolated circuits by using light.

Ordinary trigger mode is a mode when a signal record happens only after the trigger event detection. Prior to the data recording the oscilloscope stays in the trigger event waiting mode.

A group of people and facilities with an arrangement of responsibilities, authorities, and relationships.

Oscillogram (curve) is a visual signal representation on a scope display.

Oscilloscope
The Oscilloscope is a type of electronic test instrument that allows observation of analog signals usually as a two-dimensional graph - the dependence of voltage (Y-axis, vertical) on time (X-axis, horizontal).

Shoot measurement after voltage change on the rising edge RovShoot and falling edge FOVShoot.

A circuit, or even a small section of a circuit, in which electric current has more than one path it can take.

SI derived unit of pressure, internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and tensile strength, named after Blaise Pascal.

Pascal, Blaise
A French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Christian philosopher.

Pause trigger
The trigger is made if during the specified period there has been no cross of the input signal with the specified voltage level in the specified direction. Pause report starts when the input signal crosses the specified voltage level in the specified direction.

Peak Detect
Peak Detect is one of the acquisition modes in digital oscilloscope. Peak Detect mode captures the maximum and minimum signal values for each sample. It finds the highest and the lowest record points over many acquisitions.

The difference between the maximum and minimum values on the area.

Period
Period signal measurement.

The amount one waveform leads or lags another in time. Expressed in degrees, where 360 degrees comprise one waveform cycle.

Phase Modulation
Phase Modulation is analog signal (carrier) transformation type when the signal changing parameter is its phase.

Adevice to measure very small currents in nanoamperes (nA), picoampere (pA) and, in some cases, femtoamperes (fA).

A device that uses the piezoelectric effect to measure pressure, acceleration, strain or force by converting them to an electrical charge.

For spectral analysis of oscilloscope signals there is algorithm of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) widely used. This fast and powerful tool gives opportunities to investigate the signal spectrum but unfortunately it also has its own disadvantages.

Posttrigger interval
A certain part of the waveform record which contains the readings registered after the trigger (postrecord).

The name given to a region in an electric circuit in which charged particles would tend to move from one place to another.

The amount of energy produced or consumed per unit time.

When testing a power supply in this mode the electronic load consumes constant power. If the input voltage rises the electronic load decreases the input current therefore the load power (=V * I) stays at the preset level.

Power supply to load four-wire connection method
Power supply to load four-wire (4-wire) connection method is designed for the influence decrease (compensation) of the connecting wires resistance. This feature is rather useful because the resistive value of the wires resistance, when connecting the load, distorts the set output voltage of the power supply.

As a rule PPM (“part per million”, where 1 PPM = 0,0001%) is used to show devices precision in the frequency domain or other devices of high precision.

Means the shoot measurement untill the voltage change on the rising edge RPREShoot and falling edge FPREShoot.

A certain part of the waveform record which contains the readings registered before the trigger (prerecord).

Probe
Probe is a matching unit used for oscilloscope inputs connection to the electric circuit points under test. Inaccuracy of signal data measurement, the correctness of the displayed waveform under survey depend on probes.

PSK  phase shift keying
Phase shift keying is a signal transform method when the carrying oscillation phase changes abruptly depending on the discrete data messages.

A pulse is a sporadic increase or decrease in a current flow. Idealy the pulse would have a rise and a fall.

Pulse generator is a source of pulse signals for the regulation of measurements in electronic circuits and instruments.

It is the time from the pulse beginning (the signal transmission over the median level on the rising edge) to its end (the signal transmission over the median level on the falling edge).

Pulse width trigger
Pulse Width trigger occurs according to the width of pulse. In other words this trigger mode is used to catch the pulses of the specified width.

PWM - Pulse Width Modulation
Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) is signal duty changing (Duty is ratio pulse width to signal period).

PXI (PCI eXtensions for Instrumentation)
PXI (PCI eXtensions for Instrumentation) is a rugged PC-based platform for measurement and automation systems.

The standard unit of angular measure, used in many areas of mathematics. An angle's measurement in radians is numerically equal to the length of a corresponding arc of a unit circle, so one radian is just under 57.3 degrees (when the arc length is equal to the radius).

Radiation coefficient
Radiation coefficient is a term used for the conditions description of the materials when they radiate energy.

Rant Trigger
Rant Trigger is pulse amplitude triggering which crosses the first threshold level but doesn’t cross the second threshold level before the recross of the first one. Positive and negative pulse triggering is possible.

Razor Flush Edges
Why exceptionally flush? When the end of a lead or wire must be soldered it is often necessary to have it as flush as possible to insure a highly reliable solder joint. If a wire is to be coated or if it needs to be threaded into some hole it may be necessary to have no burrs or “pinch” on the wire end. Delicate components are less likely to suffer shock when cut by an exceptionally flush cutter.

Real-time sampling is the only way to capture fast, single-shot, transient signals with a digital oscilloscope. Real-time sampling is ideal for signals whose frequency range is less than half the oscilloscope’s maximum sample rate.

Record length
Record length matches the memory space subject to the signal registration in a digital oscilloscope.

Ratio of the pulse length to its period.

A switch used in electric circuit that redirects the path of electric current depending on the current inputs to the switch.

When testing a power supply in this mode, there is current floating through the electronic load linearly proportional to the input voltage in accordance with the preset resistance. At the same time the use of a combined mode (constant resistance mode changing to direct voltage mode) additionally provides protection to the power supply under test against current surge during the changing process.

Ripple and noise
There aretwo distinct components to the output noise. These are commonly referred to as ‘ripple’ and noise.

Rise Time

The time period for which the pulse level changes starting from the low reference value (usually 10%) up to thetop reference value (usually 90%).

Rogowski coil
A Rogowski coil, named after Walter Rogowski, is an electrical device for measuring alternating current (AC) or high speed current pulses. It consists of a helical coil of wire with the lead from one end returning through the centre of the coil to the other end, so that both terminals are at the same end of the coil.

Rogowski, Walter
A German physicist who bridged the gap between theoretical physics and applied technology in numerous areas of electronics.

Router
Router uses a receiver’s address shown in the data burst and with the help of the routing table identifies the route which should be used for the data transfer.

ROVShoot
A type of automatic measurements. Means the ratio of U shoot at the top in percent to amplitude (A) on the rising edge.

RPREshoot
A type of automatic measurements. Means the ratio of U shoot at the bottom in percent to amplitude (A) on the rising edge.

RS-232 (Recommended Standard 232)
Serial bus and protocol for the connection between a measuring device and a PC.

RS-485 is a standard of a physical layer for an asynchronous interface. It regulates electrical parameters of half-duplex multipoint differential communication line of “common bus”-type.

Digital meters are rated into categories based on their intended application, as set forth by IEC 61010 -1 and echoed by country and regional standards groups such as the CEN EN61010 standard.

Category I is used where equipment is not directly connected to the mains.

Category II is used on single phase mains final sub-circuits

Category III is used on permanently installed loads such as distribution panels, motors, and 3 phase appliance outlets.

Category IV is used on locations where fault current levels can be very high, such as supply service entrances, main panels, supply meters and primary over-voltage protection equipment.

The sampling rate, sample rate, or sampling frequency defines the number of samples per unit of time (usually seconds) taken from a continuous signal to make a discrete signal.

Sampling time
Samplingtime is a time period between the adjacent samples in the time scale. In analog-digital converters which work in real time sampling interval is the sampling rate inverse value. In analog-digital converters which work in the equivalent time the time period between the adjacent samples is determined by the equivalent time, not the real one.

SDK (Software Development Kit)
Tooling software. It contains various methods to develop user’s own software for the instrument supported, including the appropriate system driver. SDK user should have programming skills using the languages supported by this SDK. As a rule, the development kit contains the instrument documentation, ready functions to work with it, the examples of the original program texts showing the variants of these functions use and also different supplements to make it easier. SDK examples: Windows platform SDK – software development kit for Windows operating system, ACK3106_SDK software development kit for DSO of ACK-3106 series.

Second (s)
The second (SI symbol: s), sometimes abbreviated sec., is a unit of measurement of time, and is the International System of Units (SI) base unit of time. It may be measured using a clock.

Minimal value of the signal that can be measured with guaranteed accuracy.

Series/parallel Equivalent Mode
For the presence of non-ideality and distributed parameters of components, actual components are usually equivalent to combined network of ideal components. In general, there are two simple equivalent models used in LCR meters, which are series model and parallel model.

Setup time
Setup time is minimal time for the data set and stability before the appearance of the clock pulse rising edge.

The siemens (SI unit symbol: S) is the unit of electric conductance, electric susceptance and electric admittance in the International System of Units (SI).

SiFi
Innovative SiFi (Signal Fidelity) technology provides signal generation on “point by point” principle. This technology helps to achieve the best quality of the generated signal with low jitter, low distortion level and high precision of frequency setting.

A signal is a waveform that carries information. Signals can be AC or DC

Signal attenuation is the degree of signal amplitude contraction after passing through an attenuator device (probe or attenuator). Signal attenuation is determined by the input signal to output signal ratio. For example, 10X probe attenuates (reduce) the input signal voltage by 10.

Slope trigger
Slope triggering is considered pulse edge rise/fall time triggering.

SCPI is the Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments based on the IEEE488.1 and IEEE488.2 Standards. It conforms to IEEE754 Standard for Floating-Point Arithmetic, ISO646 7-bit Coded Character Sets for Information Exchange, and other kinds of standards.

Root of the root mean square deviation from the average value on all periods obtained on the specified area.

Standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator: Clipped Sine
As a rule Clipped Sine standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator is displayed in modern function generators or arbitrary waveform generators (AWG) (waveform generators).

Standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator: Cos
As a rule Cos standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator is displayed in modern function generators or arbitrary waveform generators (AWG) (waveform generators).

Standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator: Down ramp
As a rule Down ramp standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator is displayed in modern function generators or arbitrary waveform generators (AWG) (waveform generators).

Standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator: Down Step
As a rule Down Step standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator is displayed in modern function generators or arbitrary waveform generators (AWG) (waveform generators).

Standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator: Duty 10%
As a rule Duty 10% standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator is displayed in modern function generators or arbitrary waveform generators (AWG) (waveform generators).

Standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator: Duty 90%
As a rule Duty 90% standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator is displayed in modern function generators or arbitrary waveform generators (AWG) (waveform generators).

Standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator: EXP
As a rule EXP standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator is displayed in modern function generators or arbitrary waveform generators (AWG) (waveform generators).

Standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator: Full Wave
As a rule Full Wave standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator is displayed in modern function generators or arbitrary waveform generators (AWG) (waveform generators).

Standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator: Gate sine
As a rule Gate sine standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator is displayed in modern function generators or arbitrary waveform generators (AWG) (waveform generators).

Standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator: Half Wave
As a rule Half Wave standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator is displayed in modern function generators or arbitrary waveform generators (AWG) (waveform generators).

Standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator: LOG
As a rule LOG standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator is displayed in modern function generators or arbitrary waveform generators (AWG) (waveform generators).

Standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator: Neg-bipulse
As a rule Neg-bipulse standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator is displayed in modern function generators or arbitrary waveform generators (AWG) (waveform generators).

Standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator: Neg-DC
As a rule Neg-DC standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator is displayed in modern function generators or arbitrary waveform generators (AWG) (waveform generators).

Standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator: Neg-pulse
As a rule Neg-pulse standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator is displayed in modern function generators or arbitrary waveform generators (AWG) (waveform generators).

Standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator: Noise
As a rule Noise standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator is displayed in modern function generators or arbitrary waveform generators (AWG) (waveform generators).

Standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator: Pos-bipulse
As a rule Pos-bipulse standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator is displayed in modern function generators or arbitrary waveform generators (AWG) (waveform generators).

Standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator: Pos-DC
As a rule Pos-DC standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator is displayed in modern function generators or arbitrary waveform generators (AWG) (waveform generators).

Standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator: Pos-pulse
As a rule Pos-pulse standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator is displayed in modern function generators or arbitrary waveform generators (AWG) (waveform generators).

Standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator: SCR
As a rule SCR standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator is displayed in modern function generators or arbitrary waveform generators (AWG) (waveform generators).

Standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator: Semicircle
As a rule Semicircle standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator is displayed in modern function generators or arbitrary waveform generators (AWG) (waveform generators).

Standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator: Sinc
As a rule Sinc standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator is displayed in modern function generators or arbitrary waveform generators (AWG) (waveform generators).

Standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator: Sine
As a rule Sine standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator is displayed in modern function generators or arbitrary waveform generators (AWG) (waveform generators).

Standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator: SQRT
As a rule SQRT standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator is displayed in modern function generators or arbitrary waveform generators (AWG) (waveform generators).

Standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator: Square
As a rule Square standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator is displayed in modern function generators or arbitrary waveform generators (AWG) (waveform generators).

Standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator: Tanh
As a rule Tanh standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator is displayed in modern function generators or arbitrary waveform generators (AWG) (waveform generators).

Standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator: Trapezia
As a rule Trapezia standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator is displayed in modern function generators or arbitrary waveform generators (AWG) (waveform generators).

Standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator: Tri-pulse
As a rule Tri-pulse standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator is displayed in modern function generators or arbitrary waveform generators (AWG) (waveform generators).

Standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator: Triangle
As a rule Triangle standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator is displayed in modern function generators or arbitrary waveform generators (AWG) (waveform generators).

Standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator: Up ramp
As a rule Up ramp standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator is displayed in modern function generators or arbitrary waveform generators (AWG) (waveform generators).

Standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator: Up Step
As a rule Up Step standard signal of arbitrary waveform generator is displayed in modern function generators or arbitrary waveform generators (AWG) (waveform generators).

Static electricity is a set of phenomenon associated with the appearance, maintenance and relaxation of a free electric charge on the surface or in the volume of dielectrics or in insulated conductors.

Static measurement is the measurement of a physical quantity considered invariable during the whole measurement period according to the specific measurement target.

Subtraction (-)
Subtraction is a mathematical function in digital oscilloscopes.

Switch
Switch is a network device destined for the connection of several Ethernet units into the common network segment. Comparing to a hub which distributes the traffic from one connected unit to the rest of units, switch transfers data to the receiver directly.

TekVPI Probe Interface
Designed for use with new Tektronix® oscilloscopes including the DPO7000 Series, TekVPI™ (Tektronix Versatile Probe Interface) probes provide intelligent bi-directional oscilloscope/probe communications resulting in a simplified user experience and easier access to relevant information while preserving excellent signal fidelity.

Test & Measurement World
Test & Measurement World is a community of engineers who are working at the cutting edge as well as in the trenches of electronic test. Its goal is to support engineers, developers, and industry-related management in their test needs.

The ratio of the span of the tolerance of a measurement quantity subject to calibration, to twice the 95% expanded uncertainty of the measurement process used for calibration.

Text files .txt
One of the popular methods to store measurement data is a text file. In it data is saved in a simple text format which can be clearly understood. Although this format is not efficient for a program it’s easy to use and allows user to process data manually.

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) was founded in 1901 and is now part of the U.S. Department of Commerce. NIST is one of the nation's oldest physical science laboratories. Congress established the agency to remove a major challenge to U.S. industrial competitiveness at the time a second-rate measurement infrastructure that lagged behind the capabilities of the United Kingdom, Germany, and other economic rivals.

Thermal noise (Johnson noise)
Electronic noise generated by the thermal agitation of the charge carriers (usually the electrons) inside an electrical conductor at equilibrium, which happens regardless of any applied voltage.

Thermistor
Thermistor (thermoresistor) is a semiconductor resistor, which electrical resistance considerably depends on temperature. It is used for registration, temperature measurement in thermal control systems, in power meters and other devices.

Thermocouple
A thermocouple consists of two conductors of different materials (usually metal alloys) that produce a voltage in the vicinity of the point where the two conductors are in contact. The voltage produced is dependent on, but not necessarily proportional to, the difference of temperature of the junction to other parts of those conductors. Thermocouples are a widely used type of temperature sensor for measurement and control and can also be used to convert a temperature gradient into electricity.

Thunderbolt
Thunderbolt™ technology is a transformational I/O innovation that provides a leap in performance over current I/O technologies with 10 Gbps of full-duplex bandwidth per channel.

Extreme values of an error permitted by specifications, regulations, etc., for a given measuring instrument, test, or measurement application.

Total harmonic distortion (THD) determines the difference of the real signal form from perfect sine wave.

Traceability is the thread that connects your calibrated tools to established references and standards. It confirms that your instruments will measure accepted units (whether electronic, optical, or dimensional) to agreed levels of accuracy. Traceability is key to meeting worldwide measurement, trade and regulatory requirements.

Tracking mode is one of multi-channel power supply control modes in which single channel (driving) control means an identical change of the same parameter of another channel (driven), i.e. as a result the parameters of both channels change simultaneously.

Transition trigger
It is a rise time trigger, fall time trigger or both. Input signal trigger, the signal goes between two thresholds for the time which is more or less then the specified value; within or beyond the specified time interval.

Trigger
Trigger is a synchronization event which sets zero reference time value in the signal registration in digital oscilloscopes.

Trigger coupling
Trigger coupling can be chosen depending on the signal type used for oscilloscope synchronization. There are several coupling types acceptable.

Trigger delay is a specified time interval after the trigger moment when the trigger system doesn’t take any other trigger signals. Trigger delay provides the stability of the signal image.

Trigger level
Trigger level is threshold voltage value the exceeding of which leads to a registration trigger signal forming in digital oscilloscopes.

Trigger source
Trigger source generates a signal for the registration. In most of cases triggering is used being synchronized with the registered and displayed signal.

Trigger type
The most well-known trigger types are: Edge trigger, Pulse trigger, Video signal trigger, Slope trigger and Alternative trigger.

As a rule in AC measuring process we are interested in the value equivalent to DC which action would cause the same thermal effect as the action of AC under measurement. This value is called current root-mean-square value (or RMS).

Type B thermocouples use a platinum–rhodium alloy for each conductor. One conductor contains 30% rhodium while the other conductor contains 6% rhodium. These thermocouples are suited for use at up to 1800°C / 3272F. Type B thermocouples produce the same output at 0C and 42C / 32F and 107.6F, limiting their use below about 50C / 122F.

Type C (tungsten 5% rhenium – tungsten 26% rhenium) thermocouples are suited for measurements in the 0°C to 2320C / 32F to 4208F range. This thermocouple is well-suited for vacuum furnaces at extremely high temperatures. It must never be used in the presence of oxygen at temperatures above 260C / 500F.

Type E (chromel–constantan) has a high output (68 µV/°C) which makes it well suited to cryogenic use. Additionally, it is non-magnetic. Wide range is -50 to 740C / -58 to 1364F and Narrow range is -110 to 140C / -166 to 284F.

Type J (iron–constantan) has a more restricted range than type K (-40 to +750°C / -40 to 1382F), but higher sensitivity of about 55 µV/C. The Curie point of the iron (770C / 1418F) causes an abrupt change in the characteristic, which determines the upper temperature limit.

Type K is the most common general purpose thermocouple with a sensitivity of approximately 41 µV/°C, chromel positive relative to alumel. It is inexpensive, and a wide variety of probes are available in its −200C to +1250C / -328F to + 2282F range.

Type M thermocouples use a nickel alloy for each wire. The positive wire (20 Alloy) contains 18% molybdenum while the negative wire (19 Alloy) contains 0.8% cobalt. These thermocouples are used in vacuum furnaces for the same reasons as with type C. Upper temperature is limited to 1400°C / 2552F. It is less commonly used than other types.

Type N (Nicrosil–Nisil) (nickel-chromium-silicon/nickel-silicon) thermocouples are suitable for use between -270°C and 1300C / -454 and 2372F owing to its stability and oxidation resistance. Sensitivity is about 39 µV/C at 900C / 1652F, slightly lower compared to type K.

Type R thermocouples use a platinum–rhodium alloy containing 13% rhodium for one conductor and pure platinum for the other conductor. Type R thermocouples are used up to 1600°C / 2912F.

Type S thermocouples are constructed using one wire of 90% Platinum and 10% Rhodium (the positive or "+" wire) and a second wire of 100% platinum (the negative or "-" wire). Like type R, type S thermocouples are used up to 1600°C / 2912F. In particular, type S is used as the standard of calibration for the melting point of gold (1064.43C / 1947.98F).

Type T (copper – constantan) thermocouples are suited for measurements in the −200 to 350°C range / -328 to 662F. Often used as a differential measurement since only copper wire touches the probes. Since both conductors are non-magnetic, there is no Curie point and thus no abrupt change in characteristics. Type T thermocouples have a sensitivity of about 43 µV/C.

UltraVision
UltraVision innovative technology combines easy navigation of the captured signal, deep memory depth, ultra-wide dynamic range, perfect signal capture ratio, signal record with wide capabilities of its analysis, variable functions of triggering and decoding, signal displaying with controllable brightness.

Universal Serial Bus Test and Measurement Class (USBTMC)
USBTMCwas introduced in order to support USB interface of test and measurement devices. For such devices there were lots of developments which used GRIB (IEEE488) commands therefore USBTMC is also the same commands-oriented.

USB (Universal Serial Bus)
USB features one "Universal" plug type for all USB peripheral-to-PC connections.

USB Device
A device can represent a hub, a function or a combination of functions (compound device); port – connection point.

USB Host
USB consists of host-controller, the main controller that is included into the system unit and controls the transmission of packets on the bus. There can be only one host on USB. PC system unit contains one or several hosts and each of them controls a separate USB.

Utility (tool)
Service software.
A small helper application. As a rule, it is an addition to the main application and used for an instrument presetting, file operations and the provision of advanced user functions.
Utility examples: anti-viruses, equipment test programs, equipment configuration programs, and file converters.

Confirmation, through the provision of objective evidence, that the requirements for a specific intended use or application have been fulfilled.

Vamp

A type of automatic measurements. Voltage between Vmax and Vmin of a waveform excluding overshoots.

Vavg

A type of automatic measurements. Average signal voltage measurementfor the first cycle in digital oscilloscopes.

Vbase
A type of automatic measurements. Measures the lowest voltage over the entire waveform excluding overshoots.

Video signal trigger

Synchronization on video signal is used for the edge or line trigger from the synchronizing pulses of the standard video signals. The trigger mode on video signal is used to carry out the oscillograms of video signals fields and lines in NTSC, PAL or SECAM standards.

Vmax

A type of automatic measurements. The most positive peak voltage measured over the entire waveform.

Vmin

A type of automatic measurements. The most negative peak voltage measured over the entire waveform.

The volt (symbol: V) is the SI derived unit for electric potential (voltage), electric potential difference, and electromotive force. The volt is named in honor of the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta.

Volta, Alessandro
Count Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta was an Italian physicist known especially for the invention of the battery in 1800. Volta also studied what we now call electrical capacitance, developing separate means to study both electrical potential (V) and charge (Q), and discovering that for a given object they are proportional. This may be called Volta's Law of capacitance, and likely for this work the unit of electrical potential has been named the Volt.

In DC voltage mode the power supply will produce current in accordance with the resistance value of the load, at the same time the specified input voltage will stay invariable. The retention of the preset voltage will last until the maximum acceptable current in the load is achieved. As a rule when the current exceeds the norm (current overload) the power supply automatically changes to current stabilization mode. If the power supply is not protected against current overload it will get out of order in case of such overload.

Vpp

A type of automatic measurements. Measures the absolute difference between the maximum and minimum peak voltageof the entire waveform.

Vrms

A type of automatic measurements. The true Root Mean Square voltage over the entire waveform.

Vtop

A type of automatic measurements. Measures the highest voltage over the entire waveform excluding overshoots.

The watt (symbol: W) is a derived unit of power in the International System of Units (SI), named after the Scottish engineer James Watt.

Watt, James
A Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer whose improvements to the Newcomen steam engine were fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both his native Great Britain and the rest of the world.

A wave is a flactuation in a current or voltage. DC waves have a single polarity. AC waves have both positive and negative components.

Wave Inspector
Wave Inspector is a standard function of any Tektronix DPO3000 series models, considered innovative. It significantly simplifies ordinary and at the same time laborious debugging tasks: recorded signals research in order to find some separate events of interest. Earlier it was made manually by the data scrolling and the check of the passing signal flow.

Waveform generator
Waveform generator is a calibrated (standard) signal source of different types and frequencies intended for operations with electronic circuits and measurements in them. Synonym is standard signal generator.

Waveform recorder
Oscillogram waveform recorder is oscilloscope mode for automatic storage of the required input signal waveform frames within the specified time interval.

Weber, Wilhelm Eduard
A German physicist and, together with Carl Friedrich Gauss, inventor of the first electromagnetic telegraph.

What is a white noise?
This is a random signal (or process) with a flat power spectral density. In other words, the signal contains equal power within a fixed bandwidth at any center frequency. White noise draws its name from white light in which the power spectral density of the light is distributed over the visible band in such a way that the eye's three color receptors (cones) are approximately equally stimulated.

WiGig wireless standard
New wireless standard WiGig has been developed by WiGig Alliance as a unified specification for 60 GHz wireless technologies that will provide multi-gigabit wireless connectivity among PCs, consumer electronics and handheld devices.

William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin
A mathematical physicist and engineer. At the University of Glasgow he did important work in the mathematical analysis of electricity and formulation of the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and did much to unify the emerging discipline of physics in its modern form.

Window trigger
The trigger is made at the signal input into the threshold window or the signal output out of it.

X-parameters are the mathematically correct superset of S-parameters, applicable to both large-signal and small-signal conditions, for linear and nonlinear components.

X-Y Mode
X-Y mode is a specialized two-channel mode of oscilloscopes when the signal of channel 1 is used for the deviation along the horizontal axis (X) and the signal of channel 2 – along the vertical axis (Y).

ZigBee (IEEE 802.15.4)
ZigBee is the only standards-based wireless technology designed to address the unique needs of low-cost, low-power wireless sensor and control networks in just about any market.

Zoom
Zoom or fragment expansion mode allows expanding a marked oscillogram zone in the horizontal area throughout the full width of the display. Such fragment expansion of the basic oscillogram is used for more detailed signal analysis with higher horizontal resolution.


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