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Design Engineer Valued Creative Encyclopedia

About D.E.V.I.C.E.
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+Duty

A type of automatic measurements. Measures the first cycle waveform. Positive Duty Cycle is the ratio between positive pulse width (t) and period (T).

+Wid

A type of automatic measurements. +Wid measures the time between the first rising edge and the next falling edge at 50% level of the waveform.

-Duty

A type of automatic measurements. Measures the first cycle waveform. Negative Duty Cycle is the ratio between negative pulse width and period.

-Wid

A type of automatic measurements. -Wid measures the time between the first falling edge and the next rising edge at 50% level of the waveform.

Addition (+)
Addition is a mathematical function in digital oscilloscopes.

Afterglow is a gradual decrease in the brightness of oscillogram points on a scope display. Depending on the mode used brightness can stay steady or reduce with a specified speed.

Aliasing
When you change horizontal sweep on a digital oscilloscope you can see the waveform changing of the same signal on different horizontal sweeps.
It’s important to take into consideration the fact that you work with a digital oscilloscope and it digitizes a signal with different sampling rate depending on the horizontal sweep chosen, and afterwards it connects the digitized points with a smooth line (interpolates them), restores the real signal waveform.

Alternative trigger
Two-channeled alternative triggering for simultaneous observation of two nonsynchronized signals.

The difference between maximum and minimum signal values.

Analog waveform generators

Analog generators contain frequency-sensitive circuits for self-excitation condition at the specified frequencies.

Area
One of the auto measurement types in digital oscilloscopes, relating to a derivative measurement type of amplitude and time, is the definition of an area under the waveform curve.

Automatic measurement
Automatic measurement is a function in modern digital oscilloscopes which allows measuring different types of values automatically: in amplitude and time domains.

AutoSet is an oscilloscope function which allows getting a steady signal image of a convenient size automatically.

Average
Average is one of the acquisition modes in digital oscilloscope. The averaged waveform is a running average over a specified number of N acquisitions.

Bandwidth
Oscilloscope bandwidth is a frequency range where oscilloscope signal attenuation doesn’t exceed – 3 dB relative to reference frequency signal.

Bandwidth limit
Bandwidth limit is an oscilloscope mode when its upper frequency of the bandwidth intentionally reduces to the frequency which is several times lower.

Basic measurement concepts in oscillography
Signal amplitude and time interval measurement parameters

BWid

A type of automatic measurements. The duration of a burst measured over the entire waveform.

Channel is a separate input used for the signal record with a device.

Crest-factor (form factor) is signal amplitude to its rms value ratio. Crest-factor is an important indicator when analyzing the supply voltage quality.

Crms (Cycrms)
A type of automatic measurements. The true Root Mean Square voltage over the first cycle in the waveform.

Cursor measurements
“Cursor measurements” is the mode in which an oscilloscope determines the cursors positions on Y- or X-axes and calculates the difference between these cursors positions.

Cursors
Pair markers used for measurement by two data points (in an oscilloscope or logic analyzer). Vertical cursors are two movable vertical lines used for the measurement of temporary oscillogram parameters (e.g. signal T period). Horizontal cursors are two horizontal movable lines used to measure the signal level parameters.

Cycle area
One of the auto measurement types in digital oscilloscopes, relating to a derivative measurement type of amplitude and time, is the definition of an area under one (e.g. the first one) waveform cycle.

Delay A→B means time delay measurement between the edges of two signals. Meanwhile the edges should be both falling or rising.

Delay A→B¯ means time delay measurement between the edges of two signals. The first edge should be rising and the second one – falling or vice versa.

Division (/)
Division is a mathematical function in digital oscilloscopes.

Edge trigger
Edge triggering is performed when the signal level of synchronization source passes through the specified voltage level in the prescribed direction.

Edge-triggered synchronization
An edge trigger occurs when the input signal crosses the specified voltage level in the chosen direction.
Depending on the functionality of oscilloscope capabilities the trigger can occur on rising, falling or rising & falling edge.

Effective number of bits is the feature which reflects the signal quality (or its quality reduction) of analog-digital system in some frequency range. ENOB is defined by IEEE1057 specifications. Besides that IEEE1057 specifications describe the ENOB measurement methods. ENOB is generally acknowledged quality index of ADC, Oscilloscopes and some other discretization systems.

ETS allows a digital oscilloscope to capture high–frequency signals with a much higher effective sampling rate.

External trigger signal
External synchronization signal is a synchronizing pulse which is external relatively to the measuring device (oscilloscope, generator, logic analyzer etc.) and it usually synchronizes with the system under test.

An eye diagram is created when many short segments of a waveform are superimposed such that the nominal edge locations and voltage levels are aligned.

Fall Time

The time period for which the pulse level changes starting from the top reference value (usually 90 %) down to the low reference value (usually 10%)

FFF
FFF is one of the auto measurement types of a digital oscilloscope located in the time domain (“Delay” menu item), which is used for the measurement of the time delay between the first falling edge of channel 1 and the first falling edge of channel 2.

FFR
FFR - is one of the auto measurement types of a digital oscilloscope located in the time domain (“Delay” menu item) which is used for the measurement of the time delay between the first falling edge of channel 1 and the first rising edge of channel 2.

FFT (fast Fourier transform)
Fast Fourier transform (FFT) is a digital oscilloscope mathematical function which converts a time-domain signal into its frequency components mathematically namely performing signal spectral analysis.

FOVShoot
A type of automatic measurements. The measurement of U (shoot) at the bottom on the falling edge.

FPREshoot
A type of automatic measurements. The measurement of U shoot at the top on the falling edge.

Frequency
Frequency signal measurement.

FRF
FRF - is one of the auto measurement types of a digital oscilloscope located in the time domain (“Delay” menu item) which is used for the measurement of the time delay between the first rising edge of channel 1 and the first falling edge of channel 2.

FRR
FRR - is one of the auto measurement types of a digital oscilloscope located in the time domain (“Delay” menu item) which is used for the measurement of the time delay between the first rising edge of channel 1 and the first rising edge of channel 2.

Glitch is a pulse noise of different origin.

Glitch trigger
A special case of pulse width trigger is glitch trigger. In general glitch is a short pulse disturbance of uncontrolled parameters.
Glitch synchronization is pulse trigger of the width which is less than the sampling period.

Hold time
Hold time is minimal time for the data set and stability after the appearance of the clock pulse.

Horizontal delay
Horizontal delay is the time period between trigger moment and registration in digital oscilloscopes.

Interpolation
Interpolation in digital storage oscilloscopes is continuous signal reconstruction on a limited reports number (samples).

LFF
LFF is one of auto measurement types of a digital oscilloscope in the time domain (“Delay” menu item) which is used for the measurement of the time delay between the first falling edge of channel 1 and the last falling edge of channel 2.

LFR
LFR is one of auto measurement types of a digital oscilloscope in the time domain (“Delay” menu item) which is used for the measurement of the time delay between the first falling edge of channel 1 and the last rising edge of channel 2.

Lissajous curve
Also known as Lissajous figure or Bowditch curve. It is the graph of a system of parametric equations which describe complex harmonic motion.

The trigger is made when a signal passed to the logic inputs causes the change of the specified function state for “true” or “false”.

Logic state synchronization
The trigger is made in case all the signals being passed to the logic inputs of the logical function chosen cause the change of this function state for “true” or “false” when the clock input state is changed or stable (level timing).

LRF
LRF is one of auto measurement types of a digital oscilloscope in the time domain (“Delay” menu item) which is used for the measurement of the time delay between the first rising edge of channel 1 and the last falling edge of channel 2.

LRR
LRR is one of auto measurement types of a digital oscilloscope in the time domain (“Delay” menu item) which is used for the measurement of the time delay between the first rising edge of channel 1 and the last rising edge of channel 2.

Mathematical functions
Mathematical functions in digital oscilloscopes is a capability to perform mathematical operations between channels and to see the final oscillogram displayed.

Mean

A type of automatic measurements. The arithmetic mean measurement of the entire waveform.

Level corresponding the half of difference between the main upper and lower levels.

MegaZoom III
MegaZoom III is the third generation of the fast deep memory architecture in Agilent digital oscilloscopes which appeared in 1996. It combines fast deep memory with high speed of information capture and a high resolution display that allows detecting rare hidden signal aperiodicities.

One of the main functions of an oscilloscope is acquisition of the analog signal; that signal is then passed on to an analog to digital converter where the signal is digitized. Once it is digitized, that information has to be stored in memory, processed and plotted / displayed.

Mode

The trigger mode determines the starting of recording (data collection) order in oscilloscope.

Mode Auto
The registration (data acquisition) is made regardless of the fulfillment of the triggering terms, the data registration is typically reset after the data acquisition.

Mode Normal
The registration (data acquisition) begins after the appearance of the specified trigger term. The registration restarts after data acquisition.

Mode Single
The registration (data acquisition) begins after the appearance of the specified trigger term. The registration doesn’t restart after data acquisition.

Multiplication (*)
Multiplication is a mathematical function in digital oscilloscopes.

Noise level (Random noise)
All modern digital oscilloscopes regardless of the manufacturer have a significant noise level. The amplitude of the noise displayed on the screen of a digital oscilloscope (itself or the noise of the signal under measurement) depends on many factors including the sampling rate, signal brightness, persistence (inertia of the screen refreshing) and on the oscilloscope bandwidth as well.

Ordinary trigger mode is a mode when a signal record happens only after the trigger event detection. Prior to the data recording the oscilloscope stays in the trigger event waiting mode.

Oscillogram (curve) is a visual signal representation on a scope display.

Oscilloscope
The Oscilloscope is a type of electronic test instrument that allows observation of analog signals usually as a two-dimensional graph - the dependence of voltage (Y-axis, vertical) on time (X-axis, horizontal).

Shoot measurement after voltage change on the rising edge RovShoot and falling edge FOVShoot.

Pause trigger
The trigger is made if during the specified period there has been no cross of the input signal with the specified voltage level in the specified direction. Pause report starts when the input signal crosses the specified voltage level in the specified direction.

Peak Detect
Peak Detect is one of the acquisition modes in digital oscilloscope. Peak Detect mode captures the maximum and minimum signal values for each sample. It finds the highest and the lowest record points over many acquisitions.

The difference between the maximum and minimum values on the area.

Period
Period signal measurement.

The amount one waveform leads or lags another in time. Expressed in degrees, where 360 degrees comprise one waveform cycle.

For spectral analysis of oscilloscope signals there is algorithm of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) widely used. This fast and powerful tool gives opportunities to investigate the signal spectrum but unfortunately it also has its own disadvantages.

Posttrigger interval
A certain part of the waveform record which contains the readings registered after the trigger (postrecord).

Means the shoot measurement untill the voltage change on the rising edge RPREShoot and falling edge FPREShoot.

A certain part of the waveform record which contains the readings registered before the trigger (prerecord).

Probe
Probe is a matching unit used for oscilloscope inputs connection to the electric circuit points under test. Inaccuracy of signal data measurement, the correctness of the displayed waveform under survey depend on probes.

It is the time from the pulse beginning (the signal transmission over the median level on the rising edge) to its end (the signal transmission over the median level on the falling edge).

Pulse width trigger
Pulse Width trigger occurs according to the width of pulse. In other words this trigger mode is used to catch the pulses of the specified width.

Rant Trigger
Rant Trigger is pulse amplitude triggering which crosses the first threshold level but doesn’t cross the second threshold level before the recross of the first one. Positive and negative pulse triggering is possible.

Real-time sampling is the only way to capture fast, single-shot, transient signals with a digital oscilloscope. Real-time sampling is ideal for signals whose frequency range is less than half the oscilloscope’s maximum sample rate.

Record length
Record length matches the memory space subject to the signal registration in a digital oscilloscope.

Ratio of the pulse length to its period.

Rise Time

 The time period for which the pulse level changes starting from the low reference value (usually 10%) up to the top reference value (usually 90%).

ROVShoot
A type of automatic measurements. Means the ratio of U shoot at the top in percent to amplitude (A) on the rising edge.

RPREshoot
A type of automatic measurements. Means the ratio of U shoot at the bottom in percent to amplitude (A) on the rising edge.

The sampling rate, sample rate, or sampling frequency defines the number of samples per unit of time (usually seconds) taken from a continuous signal to make a discrete signal.

Sampling time
Sampling time is a time period between the adjacent samples in the time scale. In analog-digital converters which work in real time sampling interval is the sampling rate inverse value. In analog-digital converters which work in the equivalent time the time period between the adjacent samples is determined by the equivalent time, not the real one.

Setup time
Setup time is minimal time for the data set and stability before the appearance of the clock pulse rising edge.

Signal attenuation is the degree of signal amplitude contraction after passing through an attenuator device (probe or attenuator). Signal attenuation is determined by the input signal to output signal ratio. For example, 10X probe attenuates (reduce) the input signal voltage by 10.

Slope trigger
Slope triggering is considered pulse edge rise/fall time triggering.

Root of the root mean square deviation from the average value on all periods obtained on the specified area.

Subtraction (-)
Subtraction is a mathematical function in digital oscilloscopes.

Transition trigger
It is a rise time trigger, fall time trigger or both. Input signal trigger, the signal goes between two thresholds for the time which is more or less then the specified value; within or beyond the specified time interval.

Trigger
Trigger is a synchronization event which sets zero reference time value in the signal registration in digital oscilloscopes.

Trigger coupling
Trigger coupling can be chosen depending on the signal type used for oscilloscope synchronization. There are several coupling types acceptable.

Trigger delay is a specified time interval after the trigger moment when the trigger system doesn’t take any other trigger signals. Trigger delay provides the stability of the signal image.

Trigger level
Trigger level is threshold voltage value the exceeding of which leads to a registration trigger signal forming in digital oscilloscopes.

Trigger source
Trigger source generates a signal for the registration. In most of cases triggering is used being synchronized with the registered and displayed signal.

Trigger type
The most well-known trigger types are: Edge trigger, Pulse trigger, Video signal trigger, Slope trigger and Alternative trigger.

UltraVision
UltraVision innovative technology combines easy navigation of the captured signal, deep memory depth, ultra-wide dynamic range, perfect signal capture ratio, signal record with wide capabilities of its analysis, variable functions of triggering and decoding, signal displaying with controllable brightness.

Vamp

A type of automatic measurements. Voltage between Vmax and Vmin of a waveform excluding overshoots.

Vavg

A type of automatic measurements. Average signal voltage measurement for the first cycle in digital oscilloscopes.

Vbase
A type of automatic measurements. Measures the lowest voltage over the entire waveform excluding overshoots.

Video signal trigger

Synchronization on video signal is used for the edge or line trigger from the synchronizing pulses of the standard video signals. The trigger mode on video signal is used to carry out the oscillograms of video signals fields and lines in NTSC, PAL or SECAM standards.

Vmax

A type of automatic measurements. The most positive peak voltage measured over the entire waveform.

Vmin

A type of automatic measurements. The most negative peak voltage measured over the entire waveform.

Vpp

A type of automatic measurements. Measures the absolute difference between the maximum and minimum peak voltage of the entire waveform.

Vrms

A type of automatic measurements. The true Root Mean Square voltage over the entire waveform.

Vtop

A type of automatic measurements. Measures the highest voltage over the entire waveform excluding overshoots.

Wave Inspector
Wave Inspector is a standard function of any Tektronix DPO3000 series models, considered innovative. It significantly simplifies ordinary and at the same time laborious debugging tasks: recorded signals research in order to find some separate events of interest. Earlier it was made manually by the data scrolling and the check of the passing signal flow.

Waveform recorder
Oscillogram waveform recorder is oscilloscope mode for automatic storage of the required input signal waveform frames within the specified time interval.

What is a white noise?
This is a random signal (or process) with a flat power spectral density. In other words, the signal contains equal power within a fixed bandwidth at any center frequency. White noise draws its name from white light in which the power spectral density of the light is distributed over the visible band in such a way that the eye's three color receptors (cones) are approximately equally stimulated.

Window trigger
The trigger is made at the signal input into the threshold window or the signal output out of it.

X-Y Mode
X-Y mode is a specialized two-channel mode of oscilloscopes when the signal of channel 1 is used for the deviation along the horizontal axis (X) and the signal of channel 2 – along the vertical axis (Y).

Zoom
Zoom or fragment expansion mode allows expanding a marked oscillogram zone in the horizontal area throughout the full width of the display. Such fragment expansion of the basic oscillogram is used for more detailed signal analysis with higher horizontal resolution.


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