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# Design Engineer Valued Creative Encyclopedia

The accuracy of a digital tester is defined as the difference between the reading and the true value for a quantity measured in reference conditions.

In physics, the angular velocity is defined as the rate of change of angular displacement and is a vector quantity (more precisely, a pseudovector) which specifies the angular speed (rotational speed) of an object and the axis about which the object is rotating.

Measurement unit that is adopted by convention for a base quantity. For example: The International System of Units (SI) defines seven units of measure as a basic set from which all other SI units are derived.

The Best in Test awards are presented annually by the editors of Test & Measurement World. These awards honor important and innovative new products and services in the electronics test and measurement industry.

The set of operations that establish, under specified conditions, the relationship between values of quantities indicated by a measuring instrument or measuring system, or values represented by a material measure or a reference material, and the corresponding values realized by standards.

The set of interrelated or interacting elements necessary to maintain the measurement performance of measuring and test equipment to defined requirements.

Measurement unit for a derived quantity. Examples: the metre per second (m/s) and the centimeter per second (cm/s) are derived units of speed in the SI. The kilometre per hour (km/h) is a unit of speed outside the SI but accepted for use with the SI. The knot, equal to one nautical mile per hour, is a unit of speed outside the SI.

Digital is used to shown the precision or the resolving ability of devices with digital indicator.

Conversion of discrete sequence of digital data, which represents a signal amplitude at certain points of time, to continuous analog signal.

Dynamic measurement is the measurement of a physical quantity which is changing in size.

Any noise whose power spectral density varies inversely with frequency.

In physics, a force is any influence that causes an object to undergo a certain change, either concerning its movement, direction, or geometrical construction. It is measured with the SI unit of newtons and represented by the symbol F.

Noise whose probability distribution or probability density function is gaussian. Noise that is steady or stationary in character and originates from the sum of a large number of small events, tends to be gaussian by the central limit theorem of probability theory.

The offset of a measurement decision value from a stated specification or tolerance.

Infrared thermometers measure the temperature of an object surface.

The IAF is the world association of Conformity Assessment Accreditation Bodies and other bodies interested in conformity assessment in the fields of management systems, products, services, personnel and other similar programmes of conformity assessment.

World’s leading organization for the preparation and publication of International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies. These are known collectively as “electrotechnology”.

ILAC is the international organisation for accreditation bodies operating in accordance with ISO/IEC 17011 and involved in the accreditation of conformity assessment bodies including calibration laboratories (using ISO/IEC 17025), testing laboratories (using ISO/IEC 17025), medical testing laboratories (using ISO 15189) and inspection bodies (using ISO/IEC 17020).

ISO is an independent, non-governmental international organization with a membership of 162 national standards bodies. Through its members, it brings together experts to share knowledge and develop voluntary, consensus-based, market relevant International Standards that support innovation and provide solutions to global challenges.

ITU is the United Nations specialized agency for information and communication technologies – ICTs.

Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of physical objects.

Rate at which a body moves in a straight line from one location to another.

Measuring instrument reproducing or supplying, in a permanent manner during the use, quantities of one or more given kinds, each with an assigned value (weight piece, volume measure, standard electric resistor, line scale, gauge block, standard signal generator).

The result of a process to provide adequate confidence that a measurement will satisfy stated requirements.

The probability that an incorrect decision will result from a measurement.

The set of operations to determine the value of a measurement quantity.

An attribute of a phenomenon, artifact, or substance that may be distinguished qualitatively and determined quantitatively.

The probability that all the applicable measurement quantities of measuring and test equipment are within tolerance.

It is a scalar quantity, defined and adopted by convention, with which any other quantity of the same kind can be compared to express the ratio of the two quantities as a number.

The measuring instrument, measurement standard, reference material or auxiliary apparatus, or a combination thereof, necessary to realize a measurement process.

Device used for making measurements, alone or in conjunction with supplementary device(s). A measuring instrument alone may be considered to be a measuring system. A measuring instrument may be an indicating measuring instrument or a material measure.

Device used in measurement which provides an output quantity having a specified relation to the input quantity (thermocouple, current transformer, strain gauge, pH electrode, Bourden tube, bimetal strip).

The component of the output noise power that arises from sources within the network under test. This component of output noise is usually differentiated from the component that comes from amplifying the noise that originates in the input source for the network.

The temperature (Ta) that yields the available power spectral density from a source. It is obtained when the corresponding reflection coefficients for the generator and load are complex conjugates.

A group of people and facilities with an arrangement of responsibilities, authorities, and relationships.

The name given to a region in an electric circuit in which charged particles would tend to move from one place to another.

The amount of energy produced or consumed per unit time.

As a rule PPM (“part per million”, where 1 PPM = 0,0001%) is used to show devices precision in the frequency domain or other devices of high precision.

Radiation coefficient is a term used for the conditions description of the materials when they radiate energy.

Why exceptionally flush? When the end of a lead or wire must be soldered it is often necessary to have it as flush as possible to insure a highly reliable solder joint. If a wire is to be coated or if it needs to be threaded into some hole it may be necessary to have no burrs or “pinch” on the wire end. Delicate components are less likely to suffer shock when cut by an exceptionally flush cutter.

Static measurement is the measurement of a physical quantity considered invariable during the whole measurement period according to the specific measurement target.

Test & Measurement World is a community of engineers who are working at the cutting edge as well as in the trenches of electronic test. Its goal is to support engineers, developers, and industry-related management in their test needs.

The ratio of the span of the tolerance of a measurement quantity subject to calibration, to twice the 95% expanded uncertainty of the measurement process used for calibration.

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) was founded in 1901 and is now part of the U.S. Department of Commerce. NIST is one of the nation's oldest physical science laboratories. Congress established the agency to remove a major challenge to U.S. industrial competitiveness at the time – a second-rate measurement infrastructure that lagged behind the capabilities of the United Kingdom, Germany, and other economic rivals.

Electronic noise generated by the thermal agitation of the charge carriers (usually the electrons) inside an electrical conductor at equilibrium, which happens regardless of any applied voltage.

Extreme values of an error permitted by specifications, regulations, etc., for a given measuring instrument, test, or measurement application.

Traceability is the thread that connects your calibrated tools to established references and standards. It confirms that your instruments will measure accepted units (whether electronic, optical, or dimensional) to agreed levels of accuracy. Traceability is key to meeting worldwide measurement, trade and regulatory requirements.

Confirmation, through the provision of objective evidence, that the requirements for a specific intended use or application have been fulfilled.

X-parameters are the mathematically correct superset of S-parameters, applicable to both large-signal and small-signal conditions, for linear and nonlinear components.

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